Advertisement

Ultraschall des Beckenbodens

  • Hans-Peter Dietz
Chapter

Zusammenfassung

Die diagnostische Beurteilung von Patientinnen mit urogynäkologischen Symptomen, d. h. Inkontinenz- und Prolapsbeschwerden, war bis vor kurzem weitgehend auf die klinische Untersuchung beschränkt. Zwar erlaubt die Urodynamik einen Einblick in die Funktion von Harnblase und Urethra, doch die anatomischen Normabweichungen, die oft solcher Funktionsstörung zugrunde liegen, waren weitgehend unzugänglich. Aufgrund von Fortschritten bei der Anwendung von bildgebenden Verfahren hat sich dies nun grundsätzlich geändert – insbesondere durch die Einführung des 3D/4D-Ultraschalls. Der Ultraschall des Beckenbodens ist auf dem besten Wege, sich zur diagnostischen Standardmethode in der Urogynäkologie zu entwickeln.

Literatur

  1. Abdool Z, Shek K, Dietz H (2009) The effect of levator avulsion on hiatal dimensions and function. Am J Obstet Gynecol 201:89.e1–89.e5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adekanmi OA, Freeman R, Puckett M, Jackson S (2005) Cystocele: Does anterior repair fail because we fail to correct the fascial defects? A clinical and radiological study. Int Urogynecol J 16:73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Adisuroso T, Shek KL, Dietz HP (2012) Tomographic ultrasound imaging of the pelvic floor in nulliparous pregnant women: limits of normality. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 39:698–703CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Altman D, Väyrynen T, Ellström Engh M, Axelsen S, Falconer C (2011) Anterior Colporrhaphy versus Transvaginal Mesh for Pelvic-Organ Prolapse. New Engl J Med 364:1826–1836CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Athanasiou S, Chaliha C, Toozs-Hobson P, Salvatore S, Khullar V, Cardozo L (2007) Direct imaging of the pelvic floor muscles using two-dimensional ultrasound: a comparison of women with urogenital prolapse versus controls. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 114:882–888CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Balmforth J, Toosz-Hobson P, Cardozo L (2003) Ask not what childbirth can do to your pelvic floor but what your pelvic floor can do in childbirth. Neurourol Urodyn 22:540–542Google Scholar
  7. Beer-Gabel M, Teshler M, Schlechtman E, Zbar AP (2004) Dynamic transperineal ultrasound vs. defecography in patients with evacuatory difficulty: a pilot study. Int J Colorectal Dis 19:60–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bo K, Larson S, Oseid S, Kvarstein B, Hagen R, Jorgensen J (1988) about and ability to do correct pelvic floor muscle exercises in women with urinary stress incontinence. Neurourol Urodyn Knowledge 7:261–262Google Scholar
  9. Bombieri L, Freeman RM (2003) Do bladder neck position and amount of elevation influence the outcome of colposuspension? BJOG 110:197–200CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Brooks S, Zerba E, Faulkner J (1995) Injury to muscle fibres after single stretches of passive and maximally stimulated muscle in mice. J Physiol 488:459–469CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Bump RC, Mattiasson A, Bo K et al (1996) The standardization of terminology of female pelvic organ prolapse and pelvic floor dysfunction. Am J Obstet Gynecol 175:10–17CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Chantarasorn V, Dietz HP (2012) Diagnosis of cystocele type by clinical examination and pelvic floor ultrasound. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 39:710-714.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Chantarasorn V, Shek KL, Dietz HP (2011) Sonographic detection of puborectalis muscle avulsion is not associated with fecal incontinence. Aust NZ J Obstet Gynaecol 51:130-135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chantarasorn V, Shek KL, Dietz HP (2011) Sonographic detection of puborectalis muscle avulsion is not associated with fecal incontinence. Aust NZ J Obstet Gynecol 51:130–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dannecker C, Baur C, Ruckhäberle E et al (2004) Einfluss des Geburtstrainers Epi-No® auf die mütterliche Beckenbodenfunktion sechs Monate nach Entbindung – Follow-up einer prospektiven und randomisierten Studie. Geburtsh Frauenheilk 64:1192–1198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. DeLancey J, Morgan D, Fenner D et al (2007) Comparison of levator ani muscle defects and function in women with and without pelvic organ prolapse. Obstet Gynecol 109:295–302CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. DeLancey JO (2001) Anatomy. In: Cardozo L, Staskin D (Hrsg) Textbook of Female Urology and Urogynaecology. Isis Medical Media, London, UKGoogle Scholar
  18. Dietz H (2004) Levator function before and after childbirth. Aust NZ J Obstet Gynaecol 44:19–23CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. Dietz H (2004) Ultrasound Imaging of the Pelvic Floor: Part 1: 2D aspects. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 23:80–92CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. Dietz H (2004) Ultrasound Imaging of the Pelvic Floor: 3D aspects. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 23:615–625CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Dietz H (2007) Quantification of major morphological abnormalities of the levator ani. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 29:329–334CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Dietz H, Barry C, Lim Y, Rane A (2006) TVT vs Monarc: a comparative study. Int Urogynecol J 17:566–569CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dietz H, De Leon J, Shek K (2008) Ballooning of the levator hiatus. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 31:676–680CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. Dietz H, Eldridge A, Grace M, Clarke B (2004) Pelvic organ descent in young nulliparous women. Am J Obstet Gynecol 191:95–99CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. Dietz HP, Erdmann M, Shek K (2011 Feb) Mesh contraction: myth or reality? Am J Obstet Gynecol 204(2):173.e1-4Google Scholar
  26. Dietz H, Gillespie A, Phadke P (2007) Avulsion of the pubovisceral muscle associated with large vaginal tear after normal vaginal delivery at term. Aust NZ J Obstet Gynaecol 47:341–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Dietz H, Hansell N, Grace M, Eldridge A, Clarke B, Martin N (2005) Bladder neck mobility is a heritable trait. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 112:334–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dietz HP, Shek KL, Chantarasorn V, Langer S (2012) Do women notice the effect of levator trauma? Aust NZ J Obstet Gynaecol 52:277–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dietz H, Kirby A, Shek K, Bedwell P (2009) Does avulsion of the puborectalis muscle affect bladder function? Int Urogynecol J 20:967–972CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dietz HP, Shek KL, Daly O, Korda A (2013) Can levator avulsion be repaired surgically? Int Urogynecol J 24:1011–1015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Dietz H, Shek K, Clarke B (2005) Biometry of the pubovisceral muscle and levator hiatus by three-dimensional pelvic floor ultrasound. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 25:580–585CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Dietz H, Simpson J (2008) Levator trauma is associated with pelvic organ prolapse. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 115:979–984CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Dietz H, Wilson P (2002) Long-term success after open and laparoscopic colposuspension: a case control study. Gyn Endoscopy 11:81–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Dietz H, Wilson P (2004) The Iris Effect: how 2D and 3D volume ultrasound can help us understand anti- incontinence procedures. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 23:267–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Dietz H, Wilson P (2005) Laparoscopic Colposuspension vs. Urethropexy: A Case Control Series. Int Urogynecol J 16:15–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Dietz HP (2007) Pelvic floor ultrasound. Australasian Society for Ultrasound Medicine Bulletin 10:17–23Google Scholar
  37. Dietz HP (2010) The role of 2D and 3D dynamic ultrasound in pelvic organ prolapse. J Min Inv Gynecol 17:282–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Dietz HP (2011) Pelvic Floor Imaging in incontinence: What’s in it for the surgeon? Int Urogynecol J 22:1085–1097CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Dietz HP et al (2011) Pelvic Floor Ultrasound. In: Fleischer AC (Hrsg) Sonography in Obstetrics and Gynecology: Principles and Practice, 7. Aufl. McGraw Hill, New York CityGoogle Scholar
  40. Dietz HP, Barry C, Lim YN, Rane A (2005) Two-dimensional and three-dimensional ultrasound imaging of suburethral slings. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 26:175–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Dietz HP, Bennett MJ (2003) The effect of childbirth on pelvic organ mobility. Obstet Gynecol 102:223–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Dietz HP, Bernardo MJ, Kirby A, Shek KL (2011) Minimal criteria for the diagnosis of avulsion of the puborectalis muscle by tomographic ultrasound. Int Urogynecol J 22:699–705CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Dietz HP, Bond V, Shek KL (2012) Does childbirth alter the reflex pelvic floor response to coughing? Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 39:569–573CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Dietz HP, Chantarasorn V, Shek KL (2010) Levator avulsion is a risk factor for cystocele recurrence. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 36:76–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Dietz HP, Clarke B (1998) The urethral pressure profile and ultrasound parameters of bladder neck mobility. 17:374–375.Google Scholar
  46. Dietz HP, Clarke B (2001) The influence of posture on perineal ultrasound imaging parameters. Int Urogynecol J 12:104–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Dietz HP, Clarke B, Vancaillie TG (2002) Vaginal childbirth and bladder neck mobility. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 42:522–525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Dietz HP, Foote AJ, Mak HL, Wilson PD (2004) TVT and Sparc suburethral slings: a case-control series. Internat Urogynecol J 15:129–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Dietz HP, Jarvis SK, Vancaillie TG (2002) The assessment of levator muscle strength: a validation of three ultrasound techniques. Internat Urogynecol J 13:156–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Dietz HP, Korda A (2005) Which bowel symptoms are most strongly associated with a true rectocele? Aust NZ J Obstet Gynaecol 45:505–508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Dietz HP, McKnoulty L, Clarke B (1999) Translabial color Doppler for imaging in urogynecology: a preliminary report. UltrasoundObstetGynecol 14:144–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Dietz HP, Nazemian K, Shek KL, Martin A. Can Urodynamic stress incontinence be diagnosed by ultrasound? IUGJ DOI 10.1007/s00192-012-2032-4Google Scholar
  53. Dietz HP, Shek C (2008) Levator Avulsion and Grading of Pelvic Floor Muscle Strength. Int Urogynecol J 19:633–636CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Dietz HP, Shek K (2009) Tomographic ultrasound of the pelvic flooor: which levels matter most? Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 33:698–703CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Dietz HP, Shek KL (2008) Validity and reproducibility of the digital detection of levator trauma. Int Urogynecol J 19:1097–1101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Dietz HP, Shek KL (2009) Levator trauma can be diagnosed by 2D translabial ultrasound. Int Urogynecol J 20:807–811CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Dietz HP, Shek KL, Daly O, Korda A (2013) Can levator avulsion be repaired surgically? Int Urogynecol J 24:1011–1015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Dietz HP, Steensma AB (2005) Posterior compartment prolapse on two– dimensional and three- dimensional pelvic floor ultrasound: the distinction between true rectocele, perineal hypermobility and enterocele. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 26:73–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Dietz HP, Steensma AB (2006) The prevalence of major abnormalities of the levator ani in urogynaecological patients. BJOG 113:225–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Dietz HP, Velez D, Shek KL, Martin A (2011) Determination of postvoid residual by translabial ultrasound. IUGJ 23:1749–1752Google Scholar
  61. Dietz HP, Nazemian K, Shek KL, Martin A (2013) Can Urodynamic stress incontinence be diagnosed by ultrasound? Int Urogynecol J 24:1399–1403CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. Eisenberg V, Chantarasorn V, Shek KL, Dietz HP (2010) Does levator ani injury affect cystocele type? Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 36:618–623CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Dietz HP, Wilson PD (2000) Colposuspension success and failure: a long-term objective follow-up study. Int Urogynecol J 11:346–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Dietz HP, Wilson PD, Clarke B (2001) The use of perineal ultrasound to quantify levator activity and teach pelvic floor muscle exercises. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 12:166–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Eisenberg V, Chantarasorn V, Shek K, Dietz H (2010) Does levator ani injury affect cystocele type? Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 36(5):618–623CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Feiner B, Jelovsek J, Maher C (2009) Efficacy and safety of transvaginal mesh kits in the treatment of prolapse of the vaginal apex: a systematic review. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 116:15–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Fischer T, Ladurner R, Gangkofer A, Mussack T, Reiser M, Lienemann A (2007) Functional cine MRI of the abdomen for the assessment of implanted synthetic mesh in patients after incisional hernia repair: initial results. Eur Radiol 17:3123–3129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Franco A, Shek KL, Kirby A, Fynes MM, Dietz HP (2012) Avulsion injury and levator hiatal ballooning: two independent risk factors for prolapse? Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 91:211–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Gainey HL (1943) Post-partum observation of pelvic tissue damage. Am J Obstet Gynecol 46:457–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Giannitsas K, Athanasopoulos A (2010) Femle urethral diverticula: from pathogenesis to management. An update. Exp Rev Obstet Gynecol 5:57–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Green TH (1975) Urinary stress incontinence: differential diagnosis, pathophysiology, and management. Am J Obstet Gynecol 122:378–400Google Scholar
  72. Grischke EM, Dietz HP, Jeanty P, Schmidt W (1986) A new study method: the perineal scan in obstetrics and gynecology. UltraschallMed 7:154–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Harms L, Emons G, Bader W, Lange R, Hilgers R, Viereck V (2007) Funneling before and after anti-incontinence surgery – a prognostic indicator? Part 2: tension-free vaginal tape. Int Urogynecol J 18:189–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Heilbrun ME, Nygaard IE, Lockhart ME, Richter HE, Brown MB, Kenton KS, Rahn DD, Thomas JV, Weidner AC, Nager CW, DeLancey JO (2010) Correlation between levator ani muscle injuries on magnetic resonance imaging and fecal incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse, and urinary incontinence in primiparous women. Am J Obstet Gynecol 202(488):1–6Google Scholar
  75. Hof Braekken I, Majida M, Ellstrom Engh M, Dietz HP, Umek W, Bo K (2008) Test- retest and intra-observer repeatability of two-, three- and four- dimensional perineal ultrasound of pelvic floor muscle anatomy and function. Int Urogynecol J 19:227–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Huang WC, Yang JM (2003) Bladder neck funneling on ultrasound cystourethrography in primary stress urinary incontinence: a sign associated with urethral hypermobility and intrinsic sphincter deficiency. Urology 61:936–941CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Jundt K, Scheer I, Schiessl B, Karl K, Friese K, Peschers U (2010) Incontinence, bladder neck mobility, and sphincter ruptures in primiparous women. Eur J Med Res 15:246–252CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  78. Jung S, Pretorius D, Padda B et al (2007) Vaginal high-pressure zone assessed by dynamic 3-dimensional ultrasound images of the pelvic floor. Am J Obstet Gynecol 197(7):52.e1–52.e7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Kashihara H, Shek KL, Dietz HP (2012) Can we identify the limits of the puborectalis muscle on tomographic translabial ultrasound? Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 40(2):219–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Kaum HJ, Wolff F (2002) TVT: On midurethral tape positioning and its influence on continence. Int Urogynecol J 13:110–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Kearney R, Miller JM, DeLancey JO (2006) Interrater reliability and physical examination of the pubovisceral portion of the levator ani muscle, validity comparisons using MR imaging. Neurourol Urodyn 25:50–54CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. Kociszewski J, Rautenberg O, Kolben S, Eberhard J, Hilgers R, Viereck V (2010) Tape functionality: position, change in shape, and outcome after TVT procedure—mid-term results. Int Urogynecol J 21:795–800CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  83. Koelbl H, Bernaschek G, Deutinger J (1990) Assessment of female urinary incontinence by introital sonography. J Clin Ultrasound 18:370–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Koelbl H, Bernaschek G, Wolf G (1988) A comparative study of perineal ultrasound scanning and urethrocystography in patients with genuine stress incontinence. ArchGynecolObstet 244:39–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Koelbl H, Hanzal E (1995) Imaging of the lower urinary tract. CurrOpinObstetGynecol 7:382–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Kohorn EI, Scioscia AL, Jeanty P, Hobbins JC (1986) Ultrasound cystourethrography by perineal scanning for the assessment of female stress urinary incontinence. ObstetGynecol 68:269–272PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Konstantinovic ML, Steensma AB, Domali E et al (2007) Correlation between 3D/4D translabial ultrasound and colpocystodefecography in diagnosis of posterior compartment prolapse. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 30:448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Kruger J, Heap X, Murphy B, Dietz H (2008) Pelvic Floor Function in Nulliparous Women Using 3-Dimensional Ultrasound and Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Obstet Gynecol 111:631–638CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. Lanzarone V, Dietz H (2007) 3Dimensional ultrasound imaging of the levator hiatus in late pregnancy and associations with delivery outcomes. J Obstet Gynaecol 47:176–180Google Scholar
  90. Lekskulchai O, Dietz H (2008) Detrusor wall thickness as a test for detrusor overactivity in women. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 32:535–539CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  91. Lien KC, Mooney B, DeLancey JO, Ashton-Miller JA (2004) Levator ani muscle stretch induced by simulated vaginal birth. Obstet Gynecol 103:31–40CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  92. Martan A, Masata J, Halaska M, Voigt R (2001) Ultrasound imaging of the lower urinary system in women after Burch colposuspension. Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology 17:58–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Miller JM, Perucchini D, Carchidi LT, DeLancey JO, Ashton-Miller J (2001) Pelvic floor muscle contraction during a cough and decreased vesical neck mobility. Obstet Gynecol 97:255–260PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. Model A, Shek KL, Dietz HP (2010) Levator defects are associated with prolapse after pelvic floor surgery. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 153:220–223CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  95. Morgan D, Cardoza P, Guire K, Fenner D, Delancey J (2010) Levator ani defect status and lower urinary tract symptoms in women with pelvic organ prolapse. Int Urogynecol J 21:47–52CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  96. Mulder F, Shek K, Dietz H (2012) The pressure factor in the assessment of pelvic organ mobility. Aust NZ J Obstet Gynaecol 52:282–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Ng CC, Lee LC, Han WH (2005) Use of three-dimensional ultrasound scan to assess the clinical importance of midurethral placement of the tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) for treatment of incontinence. Internat Urogynecol J16:220–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. O’Boyle AL, Woodman PJ, O’Boyle JD, Davis GD, Swift SE (2002) Pelvic organ support in nulliparous pregnant and nonpregnant women: a case control study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 187:99–102 ([erratum appears in Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2003 Jan;188(1):301; PMID: 12548248])CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  99. Oerno A, Dietz H (2007) Levator co-activation is a significant confounder of pelvic organ descent on Valsalva maneuver. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 30:346–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Orejuela F, Shek KL, Dietz HP (2012) The time factor in the assessment of prolapse and levator ballooning. Int Urogynecol J 23(2):175–178CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  101. Otcenasek M, Krofta L, Baca V et al (2007) Bilateral avulsion of the puborectal muscle: magnetic resonance imaging-based three-dimensional reconstruction and comparison with a model of a healthy nulliparous woman. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 29:692–696CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  102. Otcenasek M, Krofta L, Grill R et al (2006) Birth injury of the puborectalis muscle – 3D ultrasound evaluation. Ceska Gynekologie 71(4):318–322 ([Czech])PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  103. Perniola G, Shek K, Dietz H, Chong C, Cartmill J, Chew S (2008) Can ultrasound replace xray proctography in women with obstructed defecation? Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 31(5):567–571CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  104. Perucchini D, Tunn R (2001) Pathophysiologische Vorstellungen zur Harninkontinenz. Zentralbl Gynakol 123:680–684CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  105. Peschers U, Schaer G, Anthuber C, DeLancey JO, Schuessler B (1996) Changes in vesical neck mobility following vaginal delivery. ObstetGynecol 88:1001–1006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Peschers UM, Fanger G, Schaer GN, Vodusek DB, DeLancey JO, Schuessler B (2001) Bladder neck mobility in continent nulliparous women. BJOG 108:320–324PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Peschers UM, Gingelmaier A, Jundt K, Leib B, Dimpfl T (2001) Evaluation of pelvic floor muscle strength using four different techniques. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 12:27–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Peschers UM, Schaer GN, DeLancey JO, Schuessler B (1997) Levator ani function before and after childbirth. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 104:1004–1008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Pirpiris A, Shek K, Kay P, Dietz H (2010) Urethral mobility and urinary incontinence. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 36:507–511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Robinson D, Anders K, Cardozo L, Bidmead J, Toozs-Hobson P, Khullar V (2002) Can ultrasound replace ambulatory urodynamics when investigating women with irritative urinary symptoms? BJOG 109:145–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Robinson D, Khullar V, Cardozo L (2005) Can bladder wall thickness predict postoperative detrusor overactivity? Int Urogynecol J 16:106Google Scholar
  112. Rodrigo N, Shek K, Dietz H (2011) Rectal intussusception is associated with abnormal levator structure and morphometry. Tech Coloproctol 15:39–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Rodrigo N, Shek KL, Wong V, Martin A, Dietz HP (2012) Hiatal ballooning is an independent risk factor of prolapse recurrence. Neurourol Urodyn 31(6):945–947Google Scholar
  114. Sarma S, Hersch M, Siva S, Dietz H, Moore K (2009) Women who cannot contract their pelvic floor muscles: avulsion or denervation? Neurourol Urodyn 28:680–681Google Scholar
  115. Schaer GN, Koechli OR, Schuessler B, Haller U (1995) Perineal ultrasound for evaluating the bladder neck in urinary stress incontinence. Obstet Gynecol 85:220–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Schuettoff S, Beyersdorff D, Gauruder-Burmester A, Tunn R (2006) Visibility of the polypropylene tape after TVT (tension-free vaginal tape) procedure in women with stress urinary incontinence- a comparison of introital ultrasound and MRI in vitro and in patients. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 27:687–692CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Shek K, Dietz H (2010) Can levator avulsion be predicted antenatally? Am J Obstet Gynecol 202:586.e1–586.e6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Shek KL, Chantarasorn V, Langer S, Dietz HP (2012) Does levator trauma heal? Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 40(5):570–575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Shek K, Dietz H (2010) Intrapartum risk factors of levator trauma. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 117:1485–1492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Shek K, Dietz H (2009) The effect of childbirth on hiatal dimensions: a prospective observational study. Obstet Gynecol 113:1272–1278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Shek K, Dietz HP, Rane A, Balakrishnan S (2008) Transobturator mesh for cystocele repair: a short- to medium term follow-up using 3D/4D ultrasound. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 32:82–86CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  122. Shek KL, Guzman Rojas R, Dietz HP (2012) Residual defects of the external anal sphincter are common after OASIS repair. Neurourol Urodyn 31(6):1072–1073Google Scholar
  123. Shek KL, Kruger J, Dietz HP (2012) The effect of pregnancy on hiatal dimensions and urethral mobility: a case control study. Int Urogynecol J 23(11):1561–1567CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Shek KL, Chantarasorn V, Langer S, Phipps H, Dietz HP (2011) Does the Epi-No® Trainer reduce levator trauma? A randomised controlled trial. Int Urogynecol J 22(12):1521–1528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Shek K, Pirpiris A, Dietz H (2010) Does levator avulsion increase urethral mobility? Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 153(2):215–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Shek KL, Wong V, Rane A, Goh J, Krause H, Lee J, Rosamilia A, Dietz HP (2012) How common is fixation failure after mesh kit surgery? Int Urogynecol J 23(S2):154–155Google Scholar
  127. Shobeiri S, Chimpiri A, Allen AC, Nihira M, Quiroz LH (2009) Surgical Reconstitution of a Unilaterally Avulsed Symptomatic Puborectalis Muscle Using Autologous Fascia Lata. Obstet Gynecol 114:480–482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Steensma A, Konstantinovic ML, Burger C, De Ridder D, Timmermann D, Deprest J (2010) Prevalence of major levator abnormalities in symptomatic patients with an underactive pelvic floor contraction. Int Urogynecol J 21(7):861–867CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  129. Steensma AB, Oom DMJ, Burger CW, Schouten WR (2007) Comparison of defecography and 3D/4D translabial ultrasoundin patients with pelvic organ prolapse and/or evacuation disorders. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 30:447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Svabik K, Martan A, Masata J, El Haddad R, Hubka P (2011) Ultrasound appearances after mesh implantation- evidence of mesh contraction or folding? Int Urogynecol J 22(5):529–533CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Svabik K, Shek K, Dietz H (2009) How much does the levator hiatus have to stretch during childbirth? BJOG 116(12):1657–1662CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Thibault- Gagnon S, Yusuf S, Langer S, Wong V, Shek KL, Dietz HP (2012) Do women notice the impact of childbirth-related levator trauma on pelvic floor and sexual function? Int Urogynecol J 23(S2):183–184Google Scholar
  133. Thompson JA, O’Sullivan PB, Briffa K, Neumann P, Court S (2005) Assessment of pelvic floor movement using transabdominal and transperineal ultrasound. Int Urogynecol J 16:285–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Tunn R, Petri E (2003) Introital and transvaginal ultrasound as the main tool in the assessment of urogenital and pelvic floor dysfunction: an imaging panel and practical approach. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 22:205–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Tunn R, Picot A, Marschke J, Gauruder-Burmester A (2007) Sonomorphological evaluation of polypropylene mesh implants after vaginal mesh repair in women with cystocele or rectocele. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 29:449–452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Tunn R, Schaer G, Peschers U et al (2005) Updated recommendations on ultrasonography in urogynecology. Int Urogynecol J 16:236–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Van De Geest L, Steensma AB (2010) Three-dimensional transperineal ultrasound imaging of anal sphincter injuries after surgical primary repair. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 36:270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Velemir L, Amblard J, Fatton B, Savary D, Jacquetin B (2010) Transvaginal mesh repair of anterior and posterior vaginal wall prolapse: a clinical and ultrasonographic study. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 35(4):474–480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Viereck V, Nebel M, Bader W et al (2006) Role of bladder neck mobility and urethral closure pressure in predicting outcome of tension-free vaginal tape procedure. Ultrasound in Obstetrics 28:214–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Viereck V, Pauer HU, Hesse O et al (2006) Urethral hypermobility after anti-incontinence surgery—a prognostic indicator? Int Urogynecol J 17:586–592CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Wallner C, Wallace C, Maas C et al (2009) A high resolution 3D study of the female pelvis reveals important anatomical and pathological details of the pelvic floor. Neurourol Urodyn 28:668–670Google Scholar
  142. Weemhoff M, Vergeldt T, Notten K, Serroyen J, Kampschoer P, Roumen F (2012) Avulsion of puborectalis muscle and other risk factors for cystocele recurrence: a 2-year follow-up study. Int Urogynecol J 23(1):65–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Wijma J, Tinga DJ, Visser GH (1991) Perineal ultrasonography in women with stress incontinence and controls: the role of the pelvic floor muscles. Gynecol Obstet Invest 32:176–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Wilson PD, Hay Smith EJ, Nygaard IE et al (2005) Adult conservative management. In: Abrams P, Cardozo L, Khoury S, Wein A (Hrsg) Incontinence: Third International Consultation on Incontinence, 2. Aufl. Health Publications Ltd, ParisGoogle Scholar
  145. Wong V, Shek K, Goh J, Rane A, Dietz H (2011) Should mesh be used for cystocele repair? Long- term outcomes of a case- control series. Int Urogynecol J 22:91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Yang J, Yang S, Huang W (2006) Biometry of the pubovisceral muscle and levator hiatus in nulliparous Chinese women. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 26:710–716CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Zbar A, Beer-Gabel M (2008) Dynamic transperineal ultrasonography. In: Pescatori M, Regadas F, Murad Regadas S, Zbar A (Hrsg) Imaging atlas of the pelvic floor and anorectal diseases. Springer ItaliaGoogle Scholar
  148. Zhuang R, Song Y, Chen Q, Ma M, Huang H, Chen J, Li Y (2011) Levator avulsion using a tomographic ultrasound and magnetic resonance-based model. Am J Obstet Gynecol 205:232.e231–232.e238CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hans-Peter Dietz
    • 1
  1. 1.Sydney Medical School Nepean, Nepean HospitalUniversity of SydneyPenrithAustralien

Personalised recommendations