Using Concurrent Task Trees for Stakeholder-centered Modeling and Visualization of Business Processes

  • Jens Kolb
  • Manfred Reichert
  • Barbara Weber
Part of the Communications in Computer and Information Science book series (CCIS, volume 284)


The different stakeholders in Business Process Management have to deal with various process models in order to understand the business processes being relevant for them. Especially inexperienced stakeholders often have difficulties in comprehending large and complex process models. In this paper a stakeholder-centered approach for modeling, changing and visualizing business processes is introduced. It is based on the Concurrent Task Tree (CTT), which constitutes a task modeling language widely applied in the field of end-user development. In particular, CTT considers stakeholder needs in modeling the behaviour of user interfaces. In the context of our work we apply CTT for modeling, changing and visualizing business processes. To evaluate whether CTT is appropriate for stakeholder-centered process modeling we compare it with imperative process modeling, and introduce a mapping between CTT process models and imperative process models expressed in terms of the Business Process Modeling Notation (BPMN). Finally, we provide an advanced stakeholder-centered visualization concept based on CTT.


stakeholder-centered process modeling process visualization concurrent task tree 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Bobrik, R., Bauer, T., Reichert, M.: Proviado – Personalized and Configurable Visualizations of Business Processes. In: Bauknecht, K., Pröll, B., Werthner, H. (eds.) EC-Web 2006. LNCS, vol. 4082, pp. 61–71. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bobrik, R., Reichert, M., Bauer, T.: Requirements for the Visualization of System-Spanning Business Processes. In: Proc. DEXA 2005 Workshops , pp. 948–954 (2005),
  3. 3.
    Bobrik, R., Reichert, M., Bauer, T.: View-Based Process Visualization. In: Alonso, G., Dadam, P., Rosemann, M. (eds.) BPM 2007. LNCS, vol. 4714, pp. 88–95. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Brüning, J., Dittmar, A., Forbrig, P., Reichart, D.: Getting SW Engineers on Board: Task Modelling with Activity Diagrams. In: Gulliksen, J., Harning, M.B., van der Veer, G.C., Wesson, J. (eds.) EIS 2007. LNCS, vol. 4940, pp. 175–192. Springer, Heidelberg (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Brüning, J., Forbrig, P.: TTMS: A Task Tree Based Workflow Management System. In: Halpin, T., Nurcan, S., Krogstie, J., Soffer, P., Proper, E., Schmidt, R., Bider, I. (eds.) BPMDS 2011 and EMMSAD 2011. LNBIP, vol. 81, pp. 186–200. Springer, Heidelberg (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hipp, M., Mutschler, B., Reichert, M.: Navigating in Process Model Collections: A New Approach Inspired by Google Earth. In: Daniel, F., Barkaoui, K., Dustdar, S. (eds.) BPM Workshops 2011, Part II. LNBIP, vol. 100, pp. 87–98. Springer, Heidelberg (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    ISO 8807: Information Processing Systems - Open Systems Interconnection - LOTOS: A Formal Description Technique based on the Temporal Ordering of Observational Behaviour (1989)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Liebermann, H., Paternò, F., Wulf, V.: End-User Development. Human-Computer Interaction Series. Springer, Dordrecht (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Liu, R., Kumar, A.: An Analysis and Taxonomy of Unstructured Workflows. In: van der Aalst, W.M.P., Benatallah, B., Casati, F., Curbera, F. (eds.) BPM 2005. LNCS, vol. 3649, pp. 268–284. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mori, G., Paternò, F., Santoro, C.: CTTE: Support for Developing and Analyzing Task Models for Interactive System Design. IEEE ToSE 28(8), 797–813 (2002)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Nóbrega, L., Jardim Nunes, N., Coelho, H.: Mapping ConcurTaskTrees into UML 2.0. In: Gilroy, S.W., Harrison, M.D. (eds.) DSV-IS 2005. LNCS, vol. 3941, pp. 237–248. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    OMG: Business Process Management Notation (BPMN) 2.0 (2010),
  13. 13.
    Paternò, F.: ConcurTaskTrees: An Engineered Approach to Model-based Design of Interactive Systems. The Handbook of Analysis for Human Computer Interaction, pp. 1–18 (1999)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Paternò, F., Mancini, C., Meniconi, S., Maria, V.S.: ConcurTaskTrees: A Diagrammatic Notation for Specifying Task Models. In: Proc. IFIP TC13 Int’l Conf. on Human-Computer Interaction, pp. 362–369 (1997)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Paternò, F., Santoro, C., Spano, L.D.: Model-Based Design of Multi-device Interactive Applications Based on Web Services. In: Gross, T., Gulliksen, J., Kotzé, P., Oestreicher, L., Palanque, P., Prates, R.O., Winckler, M. (eds.) INTERACT 2009, Part I. LNCS, vol. 5726, pp. 892–905. Springer, Heidelberg (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Pinggera, J., Zugal, S., Weber, B.: Investigating the Process of Process Modeling with Cheetah Experimental Platform. In: Proc. 1st Int’l WS Empirical Research Proc.-Oriented Inf. Sys. Hammamet (2010)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Pintus, A., Paternò, F., Santoro, C.: Modelling User Interactions in Web Service-based Business Processes. In: WEBIST 2010, pp. 175–180 (2010)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Polyvyanyy, A., García-Bañuelos, L., Dumas, M.: Structuring Acyclic Process Models. In: Hull, R., Mendling, J., Tai, S. (eds.) BPM 2010. LNCS, vol. 6336, pp. 276–293. Springer, Heidelberg (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Polyvyanyy, A., Smirnov, S., Weske, M.: Process Model Abstraction: A Slider Approach. In: 12th Int’l IEEE Enterprise Distributed Object Computing Conference, pp. 325–331. IEEE (2008)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Reichert, M., Bassil, S., Bobrik, R., Bauer, T.: The Proviado Access Control Model for Business Process Monitoring Components. Enterprise Modelling and Information Systems Architectures - An International Journal 5(3), 64–88 (2010)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Reichert, M., Dadam, P.: ADEPTflex - Supporting Dynamic Changes of Workflows Without Losing Control. Journal of Intelligent Information Systems 10(2), 93–129 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Reichert, M., Kolb, J., Bobrik, R., Bauer, T.: Enabling Personalized Visualization of Large Business Processes through Parameterizable Views. In: Proc. 26th Symposium On Applied Computing (SAC 2012), Riva del Garda (Trento), Italy (2012)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Reichert, M., Rinderle-Ma, S., Dadam, P.: Flexibility in Process-Aware Information Systems. In: Jensen, K., van der Aalst, W.M.P. (eds.) ToPNoc II. LNCS, vol. 5460, pp. 115–135. Springer, Heidelberg (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Reichert, M., Weber, B.: Enabling Flexibility in Process-aware Information Systems - Challenges, Methods, Technologies. Springer (to appear, 2012)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Rinderle, S., Bobrik, R., Reichert, M., Bauer, T.: Businesss Process Visualization - Use Cases, Challenges, Solutions. In: Proc. 8th Int’l Conf. on Enterprise Information Systems (ICEIS 2006), Paphos, Cyprus, vol. 2006, pp. 204–211 (2006)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Sousa, K., Mendonça, H., Vanderdonckt, J., Rogier, E., Vandermeulen, J.: User Interface Derivation from Business Processes: A Model-Driven Approach for Organizational Engineering. In: SAC 2008, pp. 553–560 (2008)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Vanhatalo, J., Hagen, V., Leymann, F.: Faster and More Focused Control-Flow Analysis for Business Process Models Through SESE Decomposition, pp. 43–55 (2007)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Vanhatalo, J., Völzer, H., Koehler, J.: The Refined Process Structure Tree. In: Dumas, M., Reichert, M., Shan, M.-C. (eds.) BPM 2008. LNCS, vol. 5240, pp. 100–115. Springer, Heidelberg (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Weber, B., Mutschler, B., Reichert, M.: Investigating the Effort of Using Business Process Management Technology: Results from a Controlled Experiment. Science of Computer Programming 75(5), 292–310 (2010), MathSciNetzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Weber, B., Reichert, M., Mendling, J., Reijers, H.A.: Refactoring Large Process Model Repositories. Computers in Industry 62(5), 467–486 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Weber, B., Sadiq, S., Reichert, M.: Beyond Rigidity - Dynamic Process Lifecycle Support: A Survey on Dynamic Changes in Process-Aware Information Systems. Computer Science - Research and Development 23(2), 47–65 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jens Kolb
    • 1
  • Manfred Reichert
    • 1
  • Barbara Weber
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of Databases and Information SystemsUlm UniversityGermany
  2. 2.Quality Engineering Research GroupUniversity of InnsbruckAustria

Personalised recommendations