Sequential Double Ionization: The Timing of Release

  • A. N. Pfeiffer
  • C. CirelliEmail author
  • M. Smolarski
  • R. Dörner
  • U. Keller
Conference paper
Part of the Springer Proceedings in Physics book series (SPPHY, volume 125)


The timing of electron release in strong field double ionization poses great challenges both for conceptual definition and for conducting experimental measurement. Here we present coincidence momentum measurements of the doubly charged ion and of the two electrons arising from double ionization of Argon using elliptically polarized laser pulses. Based on a semi-classical model, the ionization times are calculated from the measured electron momenta across a large intensity range. This paper discusses how this method provides timings on a coarse and on a fine scale, similar to the hour and the minute hand of a clock. We found that the ionization time of the first electron is in good agreement with the simulation, whereas the ionization of the second electron occurs significantly earlier than predicted.


Emission Angle Electron Momentum Double Ionization Ionization Time Attosecond Pulse 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This work was supported by the NCCR Quantum Photonics (NCCR QP), a research instrument of the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF), by ETH Research Grant ETH-03 09-2 and by an SNF equipment grant. R.D. acknowledges support by a Koselleck Project of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft.


  1. 1.
    P. Eckle, M. Smolarski, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, A. Staudte, Schöffler, H.G. Muller, R. Dörner, U. Keller, Attosecond angular streaking. Nat. Phys. 4, 565–570 (2008)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    P. Eckle, A.N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, A. Staudte, R. Dörner, H.G. Muller, M. Büttiker, U. Keller, Attosecond ionization and tunneling delay time measurements in Helium. Science 322, 1525–1529 (2008)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    A.N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, M. Smolarski, R. Dörner, U. Keller, Timing the release in sequential double ionization. Nat. Phys. 7, 428–433 (2011)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    C.M. Maharjan, A.S. Alnaser, X.M. Tong, B. Ulrich, P. Ranitovic, S. Ghimire, Z. Chang, I.V. Litvinyuk, C.L. Cocke, Momentum imaging of doubly charged ions of Ne and Ar in the sequential ionization region. Phys. Rev. A 72, 041403(R) (2005)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    A. Becker, R. Dörner, R. Moshammer, Multiple fragmentation of atoms in femtosecond laser pulses. J. Phys. B At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 38, S753–S773 (2005)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, R. Dörner, Correlated electron emission in multiphoton double ionization. Nature 405, 658–661 (2000)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    A. Rudenko, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, V.L.B. de Jesus, C.D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, Correlated multielectron dynamics in ultrafast laser pulse interactions with atoms. Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 253001 (2004)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    W. Wang, J.H. Eberly, Effects of elliptical polarization on strong-field short-pulse double ionization. Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 103007 (2009)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    F. Mauger, C. Chandre, T. Uzer, Recollisions and correlated double ionization with circularly polarized light. Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 083002 (2010)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. N. Pfeiffer
    • 1
  • C. Cirelli
    • 1
    Email author
  • M. Smolarski
    • 1
  • R. Dörner
    • 1
  • U. Keller
    • 1
  1. 1.Physics DepartmentETH ZurichZurichSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations