Ionization Gating for the Generation of Tunable XUV Radiation and Isolated Attosecond Pulses

  • F. Calegari
  • M. Lucchini
  • K. S. Kim
  • C. Vozzi
  • S. Stagira
  • G. Sansone
  • M. NisoliEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Springer Proceedings in Physics book series (SPPHY, volume 125)


Few-optical-cycle pulses with high-peak intensity and controlled electric field can be used for the generation of isolated attosecond pulses, employing the ionization gating technique. The temporal reshaping of the electric field of the driving pulses, induced by propagation in a highly ionized gas cell, can be used to control the electron quantum paths, which contribute to the process of high-order harmonic generation. The peculiar effects produced on the generation process by temporal reshaping of the driving field, are investigated by using the nonadiabatic saddle-point method. In particular, a complete spectral tunability of the harmonic emission is understood upon considering the effects of driving pulse distortions on the phase of the relevant electron quantum paths.


Attosecond Pulse Driving Pulse Isolate Attosecond Pulse Frequency Resolve Optical Gating Generate Attosecond Pulse 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The research leading to the results presented in this paper has received funding from the European Research Council under the European Community’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013)/ERC grant agreement n. 227355-ELYCHE. We acknowledge financial support from the Italian Ministry of Research (FIRB-IDEAS RBID08CRXK), support from European Union within contract n. 228334 JRA-ALADIN (Laserlab Europe II) and from MC-RTN ATTOFEL (FP7-238362).


  1. 1.
    F. Krausz, M. Ivanov, Attosecond physics. Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 163–234 (2009)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, New frontiers in attosecond science. Prog. Quant. Electron. 33, 17–59 (2009)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    F. Ferrari et al., High-energy isolated attosecond pulses generated by above-saturation few-cycle fields. Nat. Photon. 4, 875–879 (2010)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, Generation of high energy 10 fs pulses by a new pulse compression technique. Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2793–2795 (1996)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Y. Mairesse et al., Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft X-rays. Science 302, 1540–1543 (2003)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    L. Poletto, S. Bonora, M. Pascolini, P. Villoresi, Instrumentation for analysis and utilization of extreme-ultraviolet and soft x-ray high-order harmonics. Rev. Scient. Instrum. 75, 4413–4418 (2004)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Y. Mairesse, F. Quéré, Frequency-resolved optical gating for complete reconstruction of attosecond bursts. Phys. Rev. A 71, 011401(R) (2005)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    K.W. Delong, D.N. Fittinghoff, R. Trebino, Practical issues in ultrashort-laser-pulse measurement using frequency-resolved optical gating. IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1253–1264 (1996)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    M.J. Abel et al., Isolated attosecond pulses from ionization gating of high-harmonic emission. Chem. Phys. 366, 9–14 (2009)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    I. Thomann et al., Characterizing isolated attosecond pulses from hollow-core waveguides using multi-cycle driving pulses. Opt. Express 17, 4611–4633 (2009)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    E. Priori et al., Nonadiabatic three-dimensional model of high-order harmonic generation in the few-optical-cycle regime. Phys. Rev. A 61, 063801 (2000)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    M.V. Ammosov, N.B. Delone, V.P. Krainov, Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and atomic ions in a varying electromagnetic-field. Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 91, 2008–2013 (1986) [Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191 (1986)]Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    V.S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, High harmonic imaging of few-cycle laser pulses. Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 153901 (2003)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M.Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, P.B. Corkum, Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser pulses. Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    G. Sansone, C. Vozzi, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, Nonadiabatic quantum path analysis of high-order harmonic generation: role of the carrier-envelope phase on short and long paths. Phys. Rev. A 70, 013411 (2004)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    K. Kovács, V. Toşa, J. Mod. Opt. 57, 977–983 (2010)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. Calegari
    • 1
  • M. Lucchini
    • 1
  • K. S. Kim
    • 1
  • C. Vozzi
    • 1
  • S. Stagira
    • 1
  • G. Sansone
    • 1
  • M. Nisoli
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Physics, Politecnico di Milano, National Research Council of ItalyInstitute of Photonics and Nanotechnologies (CNR–IFN)MilanoItaly

Personalised recommendations