Advertisement

Animal Models of Excessive Alcohol Consumption in Rodents

  • Howard C. BeckerEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences book series (CTBN, volume 13)

Abstract

Numerous animal models have been developed to study excessive alcohol consumption in rodents. Use of such models has played a valuable role in elucidating biological underpinnings and environmental factors that mediate/promote excessive levels of alcohol drinking. A major obstacle in this work has been the need to overcome the natural tendency of rodents to either avoid alcohol or consume it in limited amounts that typically do not produce overt signs of intoxication. A variety of experimental approaches that entail modifying genetic and/or environmental factors have been employed to address this general problem and demonstrate excessive levels of alcohol consumption. Five different approaches that characterize animal models of excessive alcohol consumption are described: models that involve (a) scheduled access to alcohol; (b) scheduled periods of alcohol deprivation; (c) scheduled intermittent access to alcohol; (d) scheduled-induced polydipsia; and (e) dependence and withdrawal experience. Each of the models possesses unique experimental features that engender excessive levels of alcohol consumption. Both advantages and disadvantages for each model are described along with discussion of future challenges to be considered in developing more optimal models. Ultimately, the validity and usefulness of these models will lie in their ability to serve as a platform for studying biological underpinnings and environmental influences that drive increased motivation for alcohol seeking and consumption, as well as evaluation of treatment strategies that effectively reduce excessive levels of alcohol consumption.

Keywords

Animal models Excessive alcohol drinking Alcohol dependence Alcoholism Laboratory rodents 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Supported by NIH grants (P50 AA010761, U01 AA014095, R01 AA018036) and the Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center.

References

  1. Agabio R, Carai MA, Lobina C, Pani M, Reali R, Vacca G, Gessa GL, Colombo G (2000) Development of short-lasting alcohol deprivation effect in sardinian alcohol-preferring rats. Alcohol 21:59–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Avena NM, Long KA, Hoebel BG (2005) Sugar-dependent rats show enhanced responding for sugar after abstinence: evidence of a sugar deprivation effect. Physiol Behav 84:359–362PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Becker HC (2008) Alcohol dependence, withdrawal and relapse. Alcohol Res Health 31:348–361Google Scholar
  4. Becker HC, Baros AM (2006) Effect of duration and pattern of chronic ethanol exposure on tolerance to the discriminative stimulus effects of ethanol in C57BL/6J mice. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 319:871–878PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Becker HC, Lopez MF (2004) Increased ethanol drinking after repeated chronic ethanol exposure and withdrawal experience in C57BL/6 mice. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 28:1829–1838PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Becker HC, Lopez MF, Doremus-Fitzwater TL (2011) Effects of stress on alcohol drinking: a review of animal studies. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 218:131–156Google Scholar
  7. Begleiter H (1975) Ethanol consumption subsequent to physical dependence. Adv Exp Med Biol 59:373–378PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bell RL, Rodd ZA, Boutwell CL, Hsu CC, Lumeng L, Murphy JM, Li TK, McBride WJ (2004) Effects of long-term episodic access to ethanol on the expression of an alcohol deprivation effect in low alcohol-consuming rats. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 28:1867–1874PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bell RL, Rodd ZA, Smith RJ, Toalston JE, Franklin KM, McBride WJ (2011) Modeling binge-like ethanol drinking by peri-adolescent and adult P rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 100:90–97PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bito-Onon JJ, Simms JA, Chatterjee S, Holgate J, Bartlett SE (2011) Varenicline, a partial agonist at neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, reduces nicotine-induced increases in 20% ethanol operant self-administration in Sprague–Dawley rats. Addict Biol 16:440–449PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Boehm SL II, Moore EM, Walsh CD, Gross CD, Cavelli AM, Gigante E, Linsenbardt DN (2008) Using drinking in the dark to model prenatal binge-like exposure to ethanol in C57BL/6J mice. Dev Psychobiol 50:566–578PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Brown G, Jackson A, Stephens DN (1998) Effects of repeated withdrawal from chronic ethanol on oral self-administration of ethanol on a progressive ratio schedule. Behav Pharmacol 9:149–161PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Burish TG, Maisto SA, Cooper AM, Sobell MB (1981) Effects of voluntary short-term abstinence from alcohol on subsequent drinking patterns of college students. J Stud Alcohol 42:1013–1020PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Cappell H, LeBlanc A (1981) Tolerance and physical dependence: do they play a role in alcohol and drug self-administration? In: Israel et al (eds) Research Advances in Alcohol and Drug Problems. Plenum, New York, pp 159–196Google Scholar
  15. Carnicella S, Amamoto R, Ron D (2009) Excessive alcohol consumption is blocked by glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor. Alcohol 43:35–43PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Chu K, Koob GF, Cole M, Zorrilla EP, Roberts AJ (2007) Dependence-induced increases in ethanol self-administration in mice are blocked by the CRF1 receptor antagonist antalarmin and by CRF1 receptor knockout. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 86:813–821PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Cicero TJ (1980) Alcohol self-administration, tolerance and withdrawal in humans and animals: theoretical and methodological issues. In: Rigter H, Crabbe JC (eds) Alcohol tolerance and dependence. Elsevier/North-Holland, New York, pp 1–51Google Scholar
  18. Crabbe JC, Metten P, Rhodes JS, Yu CH, Brown LL, Phillips TJ, Finn DA (2009) A line of mice selected for high blood ethanol concentrations shows drinking in the dark to intoxication. Biol Psychiatry 65:662–670PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Crabbe JC, Phillips TJ, Belknap JK (2010) The complexity of alcohol drinking: studies in rodent genetic models. Behav Genet 40:737–750PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Crabbe JC, Harris RA, Koob GF (2011a) Preclinical studies of alcohol binge drinking. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1216:24–40PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Crabbe JC, Spence SE, Brown LL, Metten P (2011b) Alcohol preference drinking in a mouse line selectively bred for high drinking in the dark. Alcohol 45:427–440PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Cunningham CL, Fidler TL, Hill KG (2000) Animal models of alcohol’s motivational effects. Alcohol Res Health 24:85–92PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Cuzon Carlson VC, Seabold GK, Helms CM, Garg N, Odagiri M, Rau AR, Daunais J, Alvarez VA, Lovinger DM, Grant KA (2011) Synaptic and morphological neuroadaptations in the putamen associated with long-term, relapsing alcohol drinking in primates. Neuropsychopharmacology 36:2513–2528PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Deitrich RA, Radcliffe R, Erwin VG (1996) Pharmacological effects in the development of physiological tolerance and physical dependence. In: Begleiter H, Kissin B (eds) The pharmacology of alcohol and alcohol dependence. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 431–476Google Scholar
  25. Deutsch JA, Koopmans HS (1973) Preference enhancement for alcohol by passive exposure. Science 179:1242–1243PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Dhaher R, Finn D, Snelling C, Hitzemann R (2008) Lesions of the extended amygdala in C57BL/6J mice do not block the intermittent ethanol vapor-induced increase in ethanol consumption. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 32:197–208PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Falk JL (1961) Production of polydipsia in normal rats by an intermittent food schedule. Science 133:195–196PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Falk JL (1971) The nature and determinants of adjunctive behavior. Physiol Behav 6:577–588PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Falk JL, Samson HH (1975) Schedule-induced physical dependence on ethanol. Pharmacol Rev 27:449–464PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Falk JL, Tang M (1988) What schedule-induced polydipsia can tell us about alcoholism. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 12:577–585PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Falk JL, Samson HH, Winger G (1972) Behavioral maintenance of high concentrations of blood ethanol and physical dependence in the rat. Science 177:811–813PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Finn DA, Snelling C, Fretwell AM, Tanchuck MA, Underwood L, Cole M, Crabbe JC, Roberts AJ (2007) Increased drinking during withdrawal from intermittent ethanol exposure is blocked by the CRF receptor antagonist D-Phe-CRF(12-41). Alcohol Clin Exp Res 31:939–949PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Funk CK, Koob GF (2007) A CRF(2) agonist administered into the central nucleus of the amygdala decreases ethanol self-administration in ethanol-dependent rats. Brain Res 1155:172–178PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Gehlert DR, Cippitelli A, Thorsell A, Le AD, Hipskind PA, Hamdouchi C, Lu J, Hembre EJ, Cramer J, Song M, McKinzie D, Morin M, Ciccocioppo R, Heilig M (2007) 3-(4-Chloro-2-morpholin-4-yl-thiazol-5-yl)-8-(1-ethylpropyl)-2,6-dimethyl- imidazo[1,2-b]pyridazine: a novel brain-penetrant, orally available corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1 antagonist with efficacy in animal models of alcoholism. J Neurosci 27:2718–2726PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Gilpin NW, Badia-Elder NE, Elder RL, Stewart RB (2008a) Schedule-induced polydipsia in lines of rats selectively bred for high and low ethanol preference. Behav Genet 38:515–524PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Gilpin NW, Richardson HN, Koob GF (2008b) Effects of CRF1-receptor and opioid-receptor antagonists on dependence-induced increases in alcohol drinking by alcohol-preferring (P) rats. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 32:1535–1542PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Gilpin NW, Richardson HN, Lumeng L, Koob GF (2008c) Dependence-induced alcohol drinking by alcohol-preferring (P) rats and outbred Wistar rats. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 32:1688–1696PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Gilpin NW, Smith AD, Cole M, Weiss F, Koob GF, Richardson HN (2009) Operant behavior and alcohol levels in blood and brain of alcohol-dependent rats. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 33:2113–2123PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Grant K (1995) Animal models of the alcohol addiction process. In: Kranzler H (ed) The pharmacology of alcohol abuse. Springer, Berlin, pp 185–230Google Scholar
  40. Grant KA, Leng X, Green HL, Szeliga KT, Rogers LS, Gonzales SW (2008) Drinking typography established by scheduled induction predicts chronic heavy drinking in a monkey model of ethanol self-administration. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 32:1824–1838PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Green AS, Grahame NJ (2008) Ethanol drinking in rodents: is free-choice drinking related to the reinforcing effects of ethanol? Alcohol 42:1–11PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Griffin WC III, Lopez MF, Becker HC (2009a) Intensity and duration of chronic ethanol exposure is critical for subsequent escalation of voluntary ethanol drinking in mice. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 33:1893–1900PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Griffin WC III, Lopez MF, Yanke AB, Middaugh LD, Becker HC (2009b) Repeated cycles of chronic intermittent ethanol exposure in mice increases voluntary ethanol drinking and ethanol concentrations in the nucleus accumbens. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 201:569–580Google Scholar
  44. Heilig M, Egli M, Crabbe JC, Becker HC (2010) Acute withdrawal, protracted abstinence and negative affect in alcoholism: are they linked? Addict Biol 15:169–184PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Heyser CJ, Schulteis G, Koob GF (1997) Increased ethanol self-administration after a period of imposed ethanol deprivation in rats trained in a limited access paradigm. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 21:784–791PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Holter SM, Landgraf R, Zieglgansberger W, Spanagel R (1997) Time course of acamprosate action on operant ethanol self-administration after ethanol deprivation. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 21:862–868PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Hopf FW, Chang SJ, Sparta DR, Bowers MS, Bonci A (2010) Motivation for alcohol becomes resistant to quinine adulteration after 3 to 4 months of intermittent alcohol self-administration. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 34:1565–1573PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Hunter BE, Walker DW, Riley JN (1974) Dissociation between physical dependence and volitional ethanol consumption: role of multiple withdrawal episodes. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2:523–529PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Hwa LS, Chu A, Levinson SA, Kayyali TM, Debold JF, Miczek KA (2011) Persistent escalation of alcohol drinking in C57BL/6J mice with intermittent access to 20% ethanol. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 35:1–10Google Scholar
  50. Kalant H (1996) Current state of knowledge about the mechanisms of alcohol tolerance. Addict Biol 1:133–141PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Kalant H (1998) Research on tolerance: what can we learn from history? Alcohol Clin Exp Res 22:67–76PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Khisti RT, Wolstenholme J, Shelton KL, Miles MF (2006) Characterization of the ethanol-deprivation effect in substrains of C57BL/6 mice. Alcohol 40:119–126PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Koob GF (2003) Alcoholism: allostasis and beyond. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 27:232–243PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Kornet M, Goosen C, Van Ree JM (1990) The effect of interrupted alcohol supply on spontaneous alcohol consumption by rhesus monkeys. Alcohol Alcohol 25:407–412PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Linsenbardt DN, Moore EM, Griffin KD, Gigante ED, Boehm SL II (2011) Tolerance to ethanol’s ataxic effects and alterations in ethanol-induced locomotion following repeated binge-like ethanol intake using the DID model. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 35:1246–1255PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Liu X, Weiss F (2002) Additive effect of stress and drug cues on reinstatement of ethanol seeking: exacerbation by history of dependence and role of concurrent activation of corticotropin-releasing factor and opioid mechanisms. J Neurosci 22:7856–7861PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Loi B, Lobina C, Maccioni P, Fantini N, Carai MA, Gessa GL, Colombo G (2010) Increase in alcohol intake, reduced flexibility of alcohol drinking, and evidence of signs of alcohol intoxication in Sardinian alcohol-preferring rats exposed to intermittent access to 20% alcohol. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 34:2147–2154PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Lopez MF, Becker HC (2005) Effect of pattern and number of chronic ethanol exposures on subsequent voluntary ethanol intake in C57BL/6J mice. Psychopharmacology 181:688–696PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Lopez MF, Anderson RI, Becker HC (2008) Repeated cycles of chronic intermittent ethanol exposure increase both self-administration and the reinforcing value of ethanol in C57BL/6J mice. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 32:163AGoogle Scholar
  60. Lopez MF, Griffin WC, Melendez RI, Becker HC (2011) Repeated cycles of chronic intermittent ethanol exposure leads to the development of tolerance to aversive effects of ethanol in C57BL/6J mice. Alcohol Clin Exp Res (in press)Google Scholar
  61. Lopez-Grancha M, Lopez-Crespo G, Venero C, Canadas F, Sanchez-Santed F, Sandi C, Flores P (2006) Differences in corticosterone level due to inter-food interval length: implications for schedule-induced polydipsia. Horm Behav 49:166–172PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Lyons AM, Lowery EG, Sparta DR, Thiele TE (2008) Effects of food availability and administration of orexigenic and anorectic agents on elevated ethanol drinking associated with drinking in the dark procedures. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 32:1962–1968PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. McBride WJ, Kimpel MW, Schultz JA, McClintick JN, Edenberg HJ, Bell RL (2010) Changes in gene expression in regions of the extended amygdala of alcohol-preferring rats after binge-like alcohol drinking. Alcohol 44:171–183PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. McKinzie DL, Nowak KL, Yorger L, McBride WJ, Murphy JM, Lumeng L, Li TK (1998) The alcohol deprivation effect in the alcohol-preferring P rat under free-drinking and operant access conditions. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 22:1170–1176PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Meisch RA (1975) The function of schedule-induced polydipsia in establishing ethanol as a positive reinforcer. Pharmacol Rev 27:465–473PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Meisch RA (1983) Relationship between physical dependence on ethanol and reinforcing properties of ethanol in animals. NIAAA Res Monogr 13:27–32Google Scholar
  67. Meisch RA, Stewart RB (1994) Ethanol as a reinforcer: a review of laboratory studies of non-human primates. Behav Pharmacol 5:425–440PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Melendez RI (2011) Intermittent (every-other-day) drinking induces rapid escalation of ethanol intake and preference in adolescent and adult C57BL/6J mice. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 35:652–658PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Melendez RI, Middaugh LD, Kalivas PW (2006) Development of an alcohol deprivation and escalation effect in C57BL/6J mice. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 30:2017–2025PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Metten P, Brown LL, Crabbe JC (2011) Limited access ethanol drinking in the dark in adolescent and adult mice. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 98:279–285PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Mittleman G, Van Brunt CL, Matthews DB (2003) Schedule-induced ethanol self-administration in DBA/2J and C57BL/6J mice. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 27:918–925PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Moorman DE, Aston-Jones G (2009) Orexin-1 receptor antagonism decreases ethanol consumption and preference selectively in high-ethanol-preferring Sprague–Dawley rats. Alcohol 43:379–386PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Murphy JM, Gatto GJ, Waller MB, McBride WJ, Lumeng L, Li TK (1986) Effects of scheduled access on ethanol intake by the alcohol-preferring (P) line of rats. Alcohol 3:331–336PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Myers RD, Stoltman WP, Martin GE (1972) Effects of ethanol dependence induced artificially in the rhesus monkey on the subsequent preference for ethyl alcohol. Physiol Behav 9:43–48PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Numan R (1981) Multiple exposures to ethanol facilitate intravenous self-administration of ethanol by rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 15:101–108PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. O’Dell LE, Roberts AJ, Smith RT, Koob GF (2004) Enhanced alcohol self-administration after intermittent versus continuous alcohol vapor exposure. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 28:1676–1682PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Ogata H, Ogato F, Mendelson JH, Mello NK (1972) A comparison of techniques to induce alcohol dependence and tolerance in the mouse. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 180:216–230PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Oster SM, Toalston JE, Kuc KA, Pommer TJ, Murphy JM, Lumeng L, Bell RL, McBride WJ, Rodd ZA (2006) Effects of multiple alcohol deprivations on operant ethanol self-administration by high-alcohol-drinking replicate rat lines. Alcohol 38:155–164PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Palm S, Roman E, Nylander I (2011) Differences in voluntary ethanol consumption in Wistar rats from five different suppliers. Alcohol 45:607–614PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Phillips TJ, Reed C, Burkhart-Kasch S, Li N, Hitzemann R, Yu CH, Brown LL, Helms ML, Crabbe JC, Belknap JK (2010) A method for mapping intralocus interactions influencing excessive alcohol drinking. Mamm Genome 21:39–51PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Rhodes JS, Best K, Belknap JK, Finn DA, Crabbe JC (2005) Evaluation of a simple model of ethanol drinking to intoxication in C57BL/6J mice. Physiol Behav 84:53–63PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Rhodes JS, Ford MM, Yu CH, Brown LL, Finn DA, Garland T Jr, Crabbe JC (2007) Mouse inbred strain differences in ethanol drinking to intoxication. Genes Brain Behav 6:1–18PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Richardson HN, Lee SY, O’Dell LE, Koob GF, Rivier CL (2008) Alcohol self-administration acutely stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, but alcohol dependence leads to a dampened neuroendocrine state. Eur J Neurosci 28:1641–1653PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Rigter H, Crabbe JC (1980) Alcohol tolerance and dependence. Elsevier/North-Holland, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  85. Rimondini R, Arlinde C, Sommer W, Heilig M (2002) Long-lasting increase in voluntary ethanol consumption and transcriptional regulation in the rat brain after intermittent exposure to alcohol. FASEB J 16:27–35PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Rimondini R, Sommer W, Heilig M (2003) A temporal threshold for induction of persistent alcohol preference: behavioral evidence in a rat model of intermittent intoxication. J Stud Alcohol 64:445–449PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Rimondini R, Sommer WH, Dall’Olio R, Heilig M (2008) Long-lasting tolerance to alcohol following a history of dependence. Addict Biol 13:26–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Roberts AJ, Cole M, Koob GF (1996) Intra-amygdala muscimol decreases operant ethanol self-administration in dependent rats. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 20:1289–1298PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Roberts AJ, Heyser CJ, Cole M, Griffin P, Koob GF (2000) Excessive ethanol drinking following a history of dependence: animal model of allostasis. Neuropsychopharmacology 22:581–594PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Rodd ZA, Bell RL, Kuc KA, Murphy JM, Lumeng L, Li TK, McBride WJ (2003) Effects of repeated alcohol deprivations on operant ethanol self-administration by alcohol-preferring (P) rats. Neuropsychopharmacology 28:1614–1621PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Rodd ZA, Bell RL, Sable HJ, Murphy JM, McBride WJ (2004) Recent advances in animal models of alcohol craving and relapse. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 79:439–450PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Rodd ZA, Bell RL, Kuc KA, Murphy JM, Lumeng L, McBride WJ (2009) Effects of concurrent access to multiple ethanol concentrations and repeated deprivations on alcohol intake of high-alcohol-drinking (HAD) rats. Addict Biol 14:152–164PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Rodd-Henricks ZA, McKinzie DL, Murphy JM, McBride WJ, Lumeng L, Li TK (2000a) The expression of an alcohol deprivation effect in the high-alcohol-drinking replicate rat lines is dependent on repeated deprivations. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 24:747–753PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Rodd-Henricks ZA, McKinzie DL, Shaikh SR, Murphy JM, McBride WJ, Lumeng L, Li TK (2000b) Alcohol deprivation effect is prolonged in the alcohol preferring (P) rat after repeated deprivations. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 24:8–16PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Rodd-Henricks ZA, Bell RL, Kuc KA, Murphy JM, McBride WJ, Lumeng L, Li TK (2001) Effects of concurrent access to multiple ethanol concentrations and repeated deprivations on alcohol intake of alcohol-preferring rats. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 25:1140–1150PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Salimov RM, Salimova NB (1993) The alcohol-deprivation effect in hybrid mice. Drug Alcohol Depend 32:187–191PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Salimov RM, Salimova NB, Shvets LN, Maisky AI (2000) Haloperidol administered subchronically reduces the alcohol-deprivation effect in mice. Alcohol 20:61–68PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Samson HH, Chappell A (2001) Effects of alcohol deprivation on alcohol consumption using a sipper-tube procedure. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 25:680–686PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Samson H, Falk J (1974) Alteration of fluid preference in ethanol-dependent animals. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 190:365–376PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Samson H, Falk JL (1975) Pattern of daily blood ethanol elevation and the development of physical dependence. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 3:1119–1123PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Samson H, Hodge C (1996) Neurobehavioral regulation of ethanol intake. In: Deitrich R, Erwin V (eds) Pharmacological effects of ethanol on the nervous system. CRC Press, New York, pp 203–226Google Scholar
  102. Schulteis G, Hyytia P, Heinrichs SC, Koob GF (1996) Effects of chronic ethanol exposure on oral self-administration of ethanol or saccharin by Wistar rats. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 20:164–171PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Serra S, Brunetti G, Vacca G, Lobina C, Carai MA, Gessa GL, Colombo G (2003) Stable preference for high ethanol concentrations after ethanol deprivation in Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) rats. Alcohol 29:101–108PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Simms JA, Steensland P, Medina B, Abernathy KE, Chandler LJ, Wise R, Bartlett SE (2008) Intermittent access to 20% ethanol induces high ethanol consumption in Long–Evans and Wistar rats. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 32:1816–1823PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Simms JA, Bito-Onon JJ, Chatterjee S, Bartlett SE (2010) Long–Evans rats acquire operant self-administration of 20% ethanol without sucrose fading. Neuropsychopharmacology 35:1453–1463PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Sinclair JD (1971) The alcohol-deprivation effect in monkeys. Psychonom Sci 25:21–22Google Scholar
  107. Sinclair JD, Li TK (1989) Long and short alcohol deprivation: effects on AA and P alcohol-preferring rats. Alcohol 6:505–509PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Sinclair JD, Senter RJ (1968) Development of an alcohol-deprivation effect in rats. Q J Stud Alcohol 29:863–867PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Sinclair JD, Tiihonen K (1988) Lack of alcohol-deprivation effect in AA rats. Alcohol 5:85–87PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Sommer WH, Rimondini R, Hansson AC, Hipskind PA, Gehlert DR, Barr CS, Heilig MA (2008) Upregulation of voluntary alcohol intake, behavioral sensitivity to stress, and amygdala crhr1 expression following a history of dependence. Biol Psychiatry 63:139–145PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Spanagel R (2009) Alcoholism: a systems approach from molecular physiology to addictive behavior. Physiol Rev 89:649–705PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Spanagel R, Holter SM (1999) Long-term alcohol self-administration with repeated alcohol deprivation phases: an animal model of alcoholism? Alcohol Alcohol 34:231–243PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Spanagel R, Holter SM (2000) Pharmacological validation of a new animal model of alcoholism. J Neural Transm 107:669–680PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Spanagel R, Holter SM, Allingham K, Landgraf R, Zieglgansberger W (1996) Acamprosate and alcohol: I. Effects on alcohol intake following alcohol deprivation in the rat. Eur J Pharmacol 305:39–44PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Sparta DR, Ferraro FM III, Fee JR, Knapp DJ, Breese GR, Thiele TE (2009) The alcohol deprivation effect in C57BL/6J mice is observed using operant self-administration procedures and is modulated by CRF-1 receptor signaling. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 33:31–42PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Suwaki H, Kalant H, Higuchi S, Crabbe JC, Ohkuma S, Katsura M, Yoshimura M, Stewart RC, Li TK, Weiss F (2001) Recent research on alcohol tolerance and dependence. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 25:189S–196SPubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Tambour S, Brown LL, Crabbe JC (2008) Gender and age at drinking onset affect voluntary alcohol consumption but neither the alcohol deprivation effect nor the response to stress in mice. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 32:2100–2106PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Tang M, Falk JL (1983) Production of physical dependence on ethanol by a short drinking episode each day. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 19:53–55PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Tang M, Brown C, Falk JL (1982) Complete reversal of chronic ethanol polydipsia by schedule withdrawal. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 16:155–158PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Vengeliene V, Siegmund S, Singer MV, Sinclair JD, Li TK, Spanagel R (2003) A comparative study on alcohol-preferring rat lines: effects of deprivation and stress phases on voluntary alcohol intake. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 27:1048–1054PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Vengeliene V, Bilbao A, Molander A, Spanagel R (2008) Neuropharmacology of alcohol addiction. Br J Pharmacol 154:299–315PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Wayner MJ, Greenberg I, Tartaglione R, Nolley D, Fraley S, Cott A (1972) A new factor affecting the consumption of ethyl alcohol and other sapid fluids. Physiol Behav 8:345–362PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Weiss F (2005) Neurobiology of craving, conditioned reward and relapse. Curr Opin Pharmacol 5:9–19PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Winger G (1988) Effects of ethanol withdrawal on ethanol-reinforced responding in rhesus monkeys. Drug Alcohol Depend 22:235–240PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Wise RA (1973) Voluntary ethanol intake in rats following exposure to ethanol on various schedules. Psychopharmacologia 29:203–210PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departments of Psychiatry and Neurosciences, Charleston Alcohol Research CenterMedical University of South Carolina, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical CenterCharlestonUSA

Personalised recommendations