Advertisement

Adolescent Substance Misuse: Neurobiology and Evidence-Based Interventions

  • Nicola C. NewtonEmail author
  • Maeve O’Leary-Barrett
  • Patricia J. Conrod
Chapter
Part of the Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences book series (CTBN, volume 13)

Abstract

This chapter reviews empirical research on risk-factors for adolescent onset of substance use and misuse, with a particular focus on a recent body of literature aimed at understanding the link between early onset substance use, neuropsychological impairment and future addiction risk. The evidence suggests a causal pathway with some studies showing that adolescents might be more sensitive to the neurotoxic effects of substances, which contributes to their heightened addiction vulnerability. While questions remain pertaining to the extent to which cognitive precursors to early onset substance use account for these impairments, the evidence from a few studies suggests that early substance misuse produces some cognitive or emotional processing impairment beyond these premorbid deficits. The possible interaction between premorbid deficits and the effects of substance use on cognitive development might also explain why early onset substance use so rapidly spirals into substance abuse and dependence and provides a strong rationale for preventing early onset substance use, particularly among those at risk. This chapter then reviews the different approaches to drug and alcohol prevention, the evidence-base for current programs and the essential intervention components that lead to beneficial outcomes and high implementation fidelity.

Keywords

Substance misuse Prevention Neurobiology Adolescence Interventions Evidence-based 

References

  1. Andrews G, Henderson S, Hall W (2001) Prevalence, comorbidity, disability and service utilisation: overview of the Australian national mental health survey. British J Psychiatry 178:145–153Google Scholar
  2. Anthony JC, Petronis KR (1995) Early-onset drug use and risk of later drug problems. Drug Alcohol Depend 40(1):9–15PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Arthur M, Hawkins JD, Pollard JS, Catalano RF, Bajliono AJ Jr (2002) Measuring risk and protective factors for substance use, delinquency, and other adolescent problem behaviours: the communities that care survey. Evaluation Rev 26(6):575–601Google Scholar
  4. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2008) 2007 National drug strategy household survey: first results. AIHW, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  5. Babor T, Caetano R, Casswell S, Edwards G, Giesbrecht N, Graham K et al (2003) Alcohol: no ordinary commodity. Oxford Medical Publications, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  6. Ballard R, Gillespie A, Irwin R (1994) Principles for drug education in schools: an initiative of the school development in health education project. University of Canberra, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  7. Bandura A (1977) Social learning theory. Prentice Hall, Englewood CliffsGoogle Scholar
  8. Barber JG (1990) Computer-assisted drug prevention. J Subst Abus Treat 7(2):125–131Google Scholar
  9. Bauman A, Phongsavan P (1999) Epidemiology of substance use in adolescence: Prevalence, trends and policy implications. Drug Alcohol Depend 55(3):187–207PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Beatty WW, Blanco CR, Hames KA, Nixon SJ (1997) Spatial cognition in alcoholics: influence of concurrent abuse of other drugs. Drug Alcohol Depend 44(2–3):167–174PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Begg S, Vos T, Barker B, Stevenson C, Stanley L, Lopez AD (2007) The burden of disease and injury in Australia 2003. AIHW, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  12. Behrendt S, Wittchen H, Hofler M, Lieb R, Beesdo K (2009) Transitions from first substance use to substance use disorders in adolescence: Is early onset associated with a rapid escalation? Drug Alcohol Depend 99:68–78PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Berkowitz MW, Begun AL (2003) Designing prevention programs: the developmental perspective. In: Sloboda Z, Bukoski WJ (eds) Handbook of drug abuse prevention: theory, science and practice. Kluwer Academic, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  14. Bosworth K (2003) Application of computer technology to drug abuse prevention. In: Sloboda Z, Bukoski WJ (eds) Handbook of drug abuse prevention: theory, science and practice. Kluwer Academic, New York, pp 629–648Google Scholar
  15. Bosworth K, Gustafson D, Hawkins R (1994) The BARN system: use and impact of adolescent health promotion via computers. Comput Hum Behav 10(4):467–482Google Scholar
  16. Botvin GJ (1999) Prevention in schools. In: Ammerman RT, Ott PJ, Tarter RE (Eds.), Prevention and societal impact of drug and alcohol abuse (pp 281–305): Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers: Mahwah.Google Scholar
  17. Botvin GJ (2000) Preventing drug abuse in schools: Social and competence enhancement approaches targeting individual-level etiologic factors. Addict Behav 25(6):887–897PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Botvin GJ (2004) Advancing prevention science and practice: challenges, critical issues, and furture directions. Prev Sci 5(1):69–72PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Botvin GJ, Griffin KW (2003) Drug abuse prevention curricula in schools. In: Sloboda Z, Bukoski WJ (eds) Handbook of drug abuse prevention: theory, science and practice. Kluwer Academic, New York, pp 45–74Google Scholar
  20. Botvin GJ, Griffin KW (2007) School-based programmes to prevent alcohol, tobacco and other drug use. Int Rev Psychiatry 19(6):607–615PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Botvin GJ, Griffin KW, Diaz T, Ifill-Williams M (2001) Preventing binge drinking during early adolescence: one- and two-year follow-up of a school-based preventive intervention. Psychol Addict Behav 15(4):360–365PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Botvin GJ, Griffin KW, Paul E, Macaulay AP (2003) Preventing tobacco and alcohol use among elementary school students through life skills training. J Child Adolesc Subst Abus 12(4):1–17Google Scholar
  23. Brook JS, Brook DW, Richter L, Whiteman M (2003) Risk and protective factors of adolescent drug use: implications for prevention programs. In: Sloboda Z, Bukoski WJ (eds) Handbook of drug abuse prevention: theory, science and practice. Kluwer Academic, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  24. Brown SA, Tapert SF, Granholm E, Delis DC (2000) Neurocognitive functioning of adolescents: effects of protracted alcohol use. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 24(2):164–171PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Buhler M, Vollstadt-Klein S, Kobiella A, Budde H, Reed LJ, Braus DF et al (2010) Nicotine dependence is characterized by disordered reward processing in a network driving motivation. Biol Psychiatry 67(8):745–752PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Bunge SA, Dudukovic NM, Thomason ME, Vaidya CJ, Gabrieli JD (2002) Immature frontal lobe contributions to cognitive control in children: evidence from fMRI. Neuron 33(2):301–311PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Cahill H (2007) Challenges in adopting evidence-based school drug education programmes. Drug Alcohol Rev 26:673–679PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Casey BJ, Getz S, Galvan A (2008) The adolescent brain. Dev Rev 28(1):62–77PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Caspi A, Moffitt TE, Newman DL, Silva PA (1996) Behavioral observations at age 3 years predict adult psychiatric disorders. Longitudinal evidence from a birth cohort. Arch Gen Psychiatry 53(11):1033–1039PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Castellanos-Ryan N, O’Leary-Barrett M, Lassiter AM, Sully L, Conrod PJ (2011) Psychometric properties and diagnostic value of the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale in a sample of British adolescents. Presented at the Issues of Substance Use 2011, Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse national conference on alcohol, drugs and other substances, November 6–9, Vancouver, BC, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  31. Castellanos-Ryan N, Rubia K, Conrod PJ (2011) Response inhibition and reward response bias mediate the predictive relationships between impulsivity and sensation seeking and common and unique variance in conduct disorder and substance misuse. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 35(1):140–155PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Castellanos N, Conrod P (2006) Brief interventions targeting personality risk factors for adolescent substance misuse reduce depression, panic and risk-taking behaviours. J Ment Health 15(6):645–658Google Scholar
  33. Castro FG, Barrera M Jr, Martinez CR Jr (2004) The cultural adaptation of prevention interventions: resolving tensions between fidelity and fit. Prev Sci 5(1):41–45PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Chambers RA, Taylor JR, Potenza MN (2003) Developmental neuro circuitry of motivation in adolescence: A critical period of addiction vulnerability. American J Psychiatry 160(6):1041–1052Google Scholar
  35. Chikritzhs T, Pascal R (2004) Under-age drinking among 14–17 year olds and related harms in Australia. Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  36. Clark DB, Lynch KG, Donovan JE, Block GD (2001) Health problems in adolescents with alcohol use disorders: self-report, liver injury, and physical examination findings and correlates. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 25(9):1350–1359PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Collins DJ, Lapsley HM (2008) The costs of tobacco, alcohol and illicit drug abuse to Australian society in 2004/05. Commonwealth of Australia 2008, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  38. Comeau N, Stewart SH, Loba P (2001) The relations of trait anxiety, anxiety sensitivity, and sensation seeking to adolescents’ motivations for alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use. Addict Behav 26(6):803–825PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Conrod PJ, Castellanos-Ryan N, Strang J (2010) Brief, personality-targeted coping skills interventions and survival as a non-drug user over a 2-year period during adolescence. Arch Gen Psychiatry 67(1):85–93PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Conrod PJ, Castellanos N, Mackie C (2008) Personality-targeted interventions delay the growth of adolescent drinking and binge drinking. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 49(2):181–190PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Conrod PJ, O’Leary-Barrett M, Topper L, Castellanos-Ryan N, Mackie CJ, Newton N (2011) Long-term and indirect, population-level effects of a selective alcohol and drug prevention programme targeting personality risk in adolescence. Presented at the Canada–Finland–USA Joint Workshop on “The Early Origins of Addiction”, October 17 and 18, Toronto, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  42. Conrod PJ, Pihl RO, Stewart SH, Dongier M (2000) Validation of a system of classifying female substance abusers on the basis of personality and motivational risk factors for substance abuse. Psychol Addict Behav 14(3):243–256PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Conrod PJ, Stewart SH, Comeau N, Maclean AM (2006) Efficacy of cognitive-behavioral interventions targeting personality risk factors for youth alcohol misuse. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 35(4):550–563PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Cooper ML, Frone MR, Russell M, Mudar P (1995) Drinking to regulate positive and negative emotions: a motivational model of alcohol use. J Pers Soc Psychol 69(5):990–1005PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Crews FT, Braun CJ, Hoplight B, Switzer RC 3rd, Knapp DJ (2000) Binge ethanol consumption causes differential brain damage in young adolescent rats compared with adult rats. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 24(11):1712–1723PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Crumley FE (1990) Substance abuse and adolescent suicidal behavior. JAMA 263(22):3051–3056PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Cuijpers P (2002) Effective ingredients of school-based drug prevention programs: a systematic review. Addict Behav 27(6):1009–1023PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Cuijpers P (2003) Three decades of drug prevention research. Drugs Educ Prev :Policy 10(1):6–20Google Scholar
  49. Cuijpers P, Jonkers R, Weerdt I, Jong A (2002) The effects of drug abuse prevention at school: the healthy school and drugs project. Addiction 97:67–73PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Dane AV, Schneider BH (1998) Program integrity in primary and early secondary intervention: Are implementation effects out of control. Clin Psychol Rev 18(1):23–45PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Degenhardt L, Chiu W, Sampson N, Kessler RC, Anthony JC, Angermeyer M et al (2008) Toward a global view of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, and cocaine use: findings from the WHO world mental health surveys. PLOS Medicine 5(7):1053–1067Google Scholar
  52. Dielman TE (1995) School-based research on the prevention of adolescent alcohol use and misuse: methodological issues and advances. In: Boyd GM, Howard J, Zucker RA (eds) Alcohol problems among adolescents: current directions in prevention research. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, pp 125–146Google Scholar
  53. Dubé G, et autres (2009) Enquête québécoise sur le tabac, l’alcool, la drogue et le jeu chez les élèves du secondaire, 2008. Institut de la statistique du Québec, QuébecGoogle Scholar
  54. Duncan TE, Duncan SC, Beauchamp N, Wells J, Ary D (2000) Development and evaluation of an interactive CD-ROM refusal skills program to prevent youth substance use: ‘Refuse to use’. J Behav Med 23(1):59–72PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Dusenbury L, Falco M (1995) Eleven components of effective drug abuse prevention curricula. J Sch Heal 65(10):420–425Google Scholar
  56. Dusenbury L, Hansen WB (2004) Pursuing the course from research to practice. Prev Sci 5(1):55–59PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Ehrenreich H, Rinn T, Kunert HJ, Moeller MR, Poser W, Schilling L et al (1999) Specific attentional dysfunction in adults following early start of cannabis use. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 142(3):295–301Google Scholar
  58. Elliott DS, Mihalic S (2004) Issues in disseminating and replicating effective prevention programs. Prev Sci 5(1):47–53PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Ennett ST, Ringwalt CL, Thorne J, Rohrbach LA, Vincus A, Simons-Rudolph A et al (2003) A comparison of current practice in school-based substance use prevention programs with meta-analysis findings. Prev Sci 4:1–14PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Ernst M, Pine DS, Hardin M (2006) Triadic model of the neurobiology of motivated behavior in adolescence. Psychologic Med 36(3):299–312Google Scholar
  61. Faggiano F, Galanti MR, Bohrn K, Burkhart G, Vigna-Taglianti F, Cuomo L et al (2008a) The effectiveness of a school-based substance abuse prevention program: EU-Dap cluster randomised controlled trial. Prev Med 47(5):537–543PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Faggiano F, Vigna-Taglianti FD, Versino E, Zambon A, Borraccino A, Lemma P (2008b) School-based prevention for illicit drugs use: A systematic review. Prev Med 46(5):385–396PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Faggiano F, Vigna-Taglianti F, Burkhart G, Bohrn K, Cuomo L, Gregori D et al (2010) The effectiveness of a school-based substance abuse prevention program: 18-month follow-up of the EU-Dap cluster randomized controlled trial. Drug Alcohol Depend 108(1–2):56–64PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Fletcher JM, Page JB, Francis DJ, Copeland K, Naus MJ, Davis CM et al (1996) Cognitive correlates of long-term cannabis use in Costa Rican men. Arch Gen Psychiatry 53(11):1051–1057PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Foxcroft DR, Ireland D, Lister-Sharp DJ, Lowe G & Breen R (2002) Primary prevention for alcohol misuse in young people. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (3):CD003024Google Scholar
  66. Foxcroft DR, Tsertsvadze A (2011) Universal school-based prevention programs for alcohol misuse in young people. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (5):CD009113Google Scholar
  67. Frisher M, Crome I, Macleod J, Bloor R, Hickman M (2007) Predictive factor for illicit drug use among young people: a literature review. Research Development and Statistics Directorate, Home Office, UKGoogle Scholar
  68. Galvan A, Hare TA, Parra CE, Penn J, Voss H, Glover G et al (2006a) Earlier development of the accumbens relative to orbitofrontal cortex might underlie risk-taking behaviour in adolescents. J Neurosci 26:6885–6892PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Galvan A, Hare TA, Parra CE, Penn J, Voss H, Glover G et al (2006b) Earlier development of the accumbens relative to orbitofrontal cortex might underlie risk-taking behavior in adolescents. J Neurosci 26(25):6885–6892PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Gerevich J, Bácskai E, Rózsa S (2002) Usefulness of the temperament and character inventory among alcohol and drug using patients. Psychiatria Hungarica 17:182–192Google Scholar
  71. Goldstein RZ, Parvaz MA, Maloney T, Alia-Klein N, Woicik PA, Telang F et al (2008) Compromised sensitivity to monetary reward in current cocaine users: an ERP study. Psychophysiology 45(5):705–713PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Gottfredson DC, Gottfredson GD, Skroban S (1996) A multimodel school-based prevention demonstration. J Adolesc Res 11(1):97–115Google Scholar
  73. Gottschalk LA, Hoigaard Martin JC, Eckardt MJ (1982) Cognitive impairment and other psychological scores derived from the content analysis of speech in detoxified male chronic alcoholics. American J Drug Alcohol Abus 9(4):447–460Google Scholar
  74. Grant BF, Dawson DA (1997) Age at onset of alcohol use and its association with DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence: Results from the national longitudinal alcohol epidemiologic survey. J Subst Abus 9(1):103–110Google Scholar
  75. Grant BF, Dawson DA (1998) Age of onset of drug use and its association with DSM-IV drug abuse and dependence: results from the national longitudinal alcohol epidemiologic survey. J Subst Abus 10(2):163–173Google Scholar
  76. Grant J, Scherrer J, Lynskey M, Lyons MJ, Eisen S, Tsuang MY et al (2006) Adolescent alcohol use is a risk factor for adult alcohol and drug dependence: Evidence from a twin design. Psychol Med 36(1):109–118PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Greenberg MT (2004) Current and Future Challenges in School-Based Prevention: The Researcher Perspective. Prev Sci 5(1):5–13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Gregor MA, Shope JT, Blow FC, Maio RF, Weber JE, Nypaver MM (2003) Feasibility of using an interactive laptop program in the emergency department to prevent alcohol misuse among adolescents. Ann Emerg Med 42(2):276–284PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Gresham FM (2004) Current status and future directions of school-based behavioral interventions. School Psychol Rev 33(3):326Google Scholar
  80. Gropper M (2002) Computer integrated drug prevention: Combining multi-media and social group work practices to teach inner city Israeli 6th graders how to say no to drugs. J Technol Hum Serv 20:49–65Google Scholar
  81. Gruber E, DiClements R, Anderson M, Lodico M (1996) Early drinking onset and its associatin with alcohol use and problem behaviour in late adolescent. Prev Med 25:293–300PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Hall W, Degenhardt L, Lynskey M (2001) The health and psycholgical effects of cannabis use. National Drug Strategy, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  83. Halpern-Felsher BL, Millstein SG, Ellen JM (1996) Relationship of alcohol use and risky sexual behavior: a review and analysis of findings. J Adolesc Health 19(5):331–336PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Hansen WB (1992) School-based substance abuse prevention: A review of the state of the art in curriculum, 1980–1990. Health Educ Res 7(3):403–430PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Happaney K, Zelazo PD, Stuss DT (2004) Development of orbitofrontal function: current themes and future directions. Brain Cogn 55(1):1–10PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Harden PW, Pihl RO (1995) Cognitive function, cardiovascular reactivity, and behavior in boys at high risk for alcoholism. J Abnorm Psychol 104(1):94–103PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Hawkins JD, Catalano RF, Miller J (1992) Risk and protective factors for alcohol and other drug problems in adolescence and early adulthood: Implications for substance abuse prevention. Psychol Bull 112:64–105PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Hester R, Foxe JJ, Molholm S, Shpaner M, Garavan H (2005) Neural mechanisms involved in error processing: a comparison of errors made with and without awareness. Neuroimage 27(3):602–608PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Hibell B, Guttormsson U, Ahlström S, Balakireva O, Bjarnason T, Kokkevi A et al (2007) The 2007 ESPAD report: substance use among students in 35 European countries. The European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs, StockholmGoogle Scholar
  90. Hicks BA, Morris JA Jr, Bass SM, Holcomb GW 3rd, Neblett WW (1990) Alcohol and the adolescent trauma population. J Pediatr Surg 25(9):944–948; discussion 948–949Google Scholar
  91. Johnston LD, O’Malley PM, Bachman JG, Schulenberg JE (2011) Monitoring the Future national results on adolescent drug use: overview of key findings, 2010. Institute for Social Research, The University of Michigan, Ann ArborGoogle Scholar
  92. Jones L, Sumnall H, Burrell K, McVeigh J, Bellis MA (2006) Universal drug prevention. National Collaborating Centre for Drug Prevention, LiverpoolGoogle Scholar
  93. Kaftarian S, Robinson E, Compton W, Watts Davis B, Valkow N (2004) Blending prevention research and practice in schools: Critical issues and suggestions. Prev Sci 5(1):1–3PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Kirisci L, Tarter RE, Reynolds M, Vanyukov M (2006) Individual differences in childhood neurobehavior disinhibition predict decision to desist substance use during adolescence and substance use disorder in young adulthood: a prospective study. Addict Behav 31(4):686–696PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Krank M, Stewart SH, O’Connor R, Woicik PB, Wall AM, Conrod PJ (2011) Structural, concurrent, and predictive validity of the substance use risk profile scale in early adolescence. Addict Behav 36(1–2):37–46PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Kuntsche E, Delgrande Jordon M (2006) Adolesscent alcohol and cannabis use in relation to peer and school factors: Results of multilevel analyses. Drug Alcohol Depend 84:167–174PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Kwon H, Reiss AL, Menon V (2002) Neural basis of protracted developmental changes in visuo-spatial working memory. Proc Nat Acad Sci U S A 99(20):13336–13341Google Scholar
  98. Lisnov L, Harding CG, Safer LA, Kavanagh J (1998) Adolescents perceptions of substance abuse prevention strategies. Adolescence 33(130):301–311PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Loxley W, Toumbouruo JW, Stockwell T, Haines B, Scott K, Godfrey C et al (2004) The prevention of substance use, risk and harm in Australia: A review of the evidence. Ministerial Council on Drug Strategy, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  100. Luengo MA, Carrillo-de-la-Pena MT, Otero JM, Romero E (1994) A short-term longitudinal study of impulsivity and antisocial behavior. J Pers Soc Psychol 66(3):542–548PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Luna B, Sweeney JA (2004) The emergence of collaborative brain function: fMRI studies of the development of response inhibition. Ann New York Acad Sci 1021:296–309Google Scholar
  102. Lynskey M, Heath AC, Nelson AC (2002) Genetic and environmental contributions to cannabis dependence in a national young adult twin sample. Psychol Med 32:195–207PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Mackie CJ, Castellanos-Ryan N, Conrod PJ (2011) Developmental trajectories of psychotic-like experiences across adolescence: impact of victimization and substance use. Psychol Med 41(1):47–58PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Marsch LA, Bickel WK, Badger GJ (2007) Applying computer technology to substance abuse prevention science: Results of a preliminary examination. J Child Adolesc Subst Abus 16(2):69–94Google Scholar
  105. McAllister I (2003) Alcohol consumption among adolescents and young adults. Melbourne, VictoriaGoogle Scholar
  106. McBride N (2003) A systematic review of school drug education. Health Education Research 18(6):729–742PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. McBride N, Farringdon F, Muleners L, Midford R (2006) School health and alcohol harm reduction project: details of intervention development and research procedures. National Drug Research Institute, Curtin University of Technology, PerthGoogle Scholar
  108. McBride N, Midford R, Farringdon F, Phillips M (2000) Early results from a school alcohol harm minimization study: The school health and alcohol harm reduction project. Addiction 95(7):1021–1042PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Merikangas KR, Mehta RL, Molnar BE, Walters EE, Swendsen JD, Aguilar-Gaziola S et al (1998) Comorbidity of substance use disorders with mood and anxiety disorders: results of the international consortium in psychiatric epidemiology. Addict Behav 23(6):893–907PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Meyer L, Cahill H (2004) Principles for school drug education. Australian Government Department of Education Science and Training, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  111. Midford R (2008) Is this the path to effective prevention? Addiction 103(7):1169–1170; discussion 1171–1163Google Scholar
  112. Midford R, Munro G, McBride N, Snow P, Ladzinski U (2002) Principles that underpin effective school-based drug education. J Drug Edu 32(4):363–386Google Scholar
  113. Midford R, Snow P, Lentin S (2001) School-based illicit drug education programs: a critical review and analysis. National Drug Research InstituteGoogle Scholar
  114. Miller WR, Orr J (1980) Nature and sequence of neuropsychological deficits in alcoholics. J Stud Alcohol 41(3):325–337PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Mrazek PJ, Haggerty RJ (1994) Reducing risks for mental disorders: frontiers for prevention intervention research. National Academy Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  116. National Institute on Drug Abuse (2003) Preventing drug abuse among children and adolescents. National Institutes of HealthGoogle Scholar
  117. National Institute on Drug Abuse (2008) Monitoring the furture: national results on adolescent drug use. National Institutes of Health, MarylandGoogle Scholar
  118. Newcomb MD (1995) Identifying high-risk youth: prevalence and patterns of adolescent drug abuse. In: Rahdert E, Czechowicz D, Amsei I (eds) Adolescent drug abuse: clinical assessment and therapeutic intervention. National Institute on Drug Abuse, Rockville, pp 7–38Google Scholar
  119. Newton NC, Andrews G, Teesson M, Vogl LE (2009a) Delivering prevention for alcohol and cannabis using the internet: a cluster randomised controlled trial. Prev Med 48:579–584PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Newton NC, Vogl LE, Teesson M, Andrews G (2009b) CLIMATE schools alcohol module: cross-validation of a school-based prevention programme for alcohol misuse. Australian and New Zealand J Psych 43:201–207Google Scholar
  121. Newton NC, Teesson M, Vogl LE, Andrews G (2010) Internet-based prevention for alcohol and cannabis use: final results of the climate schools course. Addiction 105(4):749–759PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. O’Leary-Barrett M, Mackie CJ, Castellanos-Ryan N, Al-Khudhairy N, Conrod PJ (2010) Personality-targeted interventions delay uptake of drinking and decrease risk of alcohol-related problems when delivered by teachers. J Amer Acad Child Adol Psychiatry 49(9):954–963.e951Google Scholar
  123. Oetting ER, Lynch RS (2003) Peers and the prevention of adolescent drug use. In: Sloboda Z, Bukoski WJ (eds) Handbook of drug prevention: theory, science and practice. Kluwer Academic, New York, pp 101–127Google Scholar
  124. Office of National Drug Control Policy (2008) Marijuana: the greatest cause of illegal drug abuse. Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  125. Offord DR (2000) Selection of levels of prevention. Addict Behav 25(6):833–842PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Oosterlaan J, Logan GD, Sergeant JA (1998) Response inhibition in AD/HD, CD, comorbid AD/HD + CD, anxious, and control children: a meta-analysis of studies with the stop task. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 39(3):411–425PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Parsons OA (1998) Neurocognitive deficits in alcoholics and social drinkers: A continuum? Alcoholism: Clin Exp Res 22(4):954–961Google Scholar
  128. Patton G, Coffey C, Lynskey MT, Reid S, Hemphill S, Carlin JB et al (2007) Trajectories of adolescent alcohol and cannabis use into young adulthood. Centre for Adolescent Health, MelbourneGoogle Scholar
  129. Pentz MA (2004) Form follows function: designs for prevention effectiveness and diffusion research. Prev Sci 5(1):23–29PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Peterson JB, Finn PR, Pihl RO (1992) Cognitive dysfunction and the inherited predisposition to alcoholism. J Stud Alcohol 53(2):154–160PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Pope HG Jr, Gruber AJ, Hudson JI, Cohane G, Huestis MA, Yurgelun-Todd D (2003) Early-onset cannabis use and cognitive deficits: what is the nature of the association? Drug Alcohol Depend 69(3):303–310PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Powell J, Dawkins L, Davis RE (2002) Smoking, reward responsiveness, and response inhibition: tests of an incentive motivational model. Biol Psychiatry 51(2):151–163PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Reiss S, Peterson RA, Gursky DM, McNally RJ (1986) Anxiety sensitivity, anxiety frequency and the prediction of fearfulness. Behav Res Ther 24(1):1–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Reuter J, Raedler T, Rose M, Hand I, Glascher J, Buchel C (2005) Pathological gambling is linked to reduced activation of the mesolimbic reward system. Nat Neurosci 8(2):147–148PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Ringwalt C, Ennett S, Johnson R, Rohrbach LA, Simons-Rudolph A, Vincus A et al (2003) Factors associated with fidelity to substance use prevention curriculum guides in the Nation’s middle schools. Health Edu Behav 30(3):375–391Google Scholar
  136. Rohde P, Lewinsohn PM, Seeley JR (1996) Psychiatric comorbidity with problematic alcohol use in high school students. J American Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 35(1):101–109Google Scholar
  137. Rohrbach LA, D’Onofrio CN, Backer TE, Montgomery SB (1996) Diffusion of school-based substance abuse prevention programs. Am Behav Sci 39(7):919–934Google Scholar
  138. Roona MR, Streke AV, Ochshorn P, Marshall DM, Palmer AP (2000) Identifying effective school-based substance abuse prevention interventions: background paper for prevention 2000 summit. Albany, NYGoogle Scholar
  139. Rubia K, Smith AB, Brammer MJ, Taylor E (2007) Temporal lobe dysfunction in medication-naive boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder during attention allocation and its relation to response variability. Biol Psychiatry 62(9):999–1006PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Schinke S, Schwinn TM, Noia JD, Cole KC (2004) Reducing the risks of alcohol use among urban youth: Three-year effects of a computer-based intervention with and without parent involvement. J Stud Alcohol 65:443–449PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Schinke S, Schwinn TM, Ozanian A (2005) Alcohol prevention among high-risk youth: Computer-based intervention. J Prev Interv Community 29:117–130PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Sharma M (2006) Editorial: Making effective alcohol education interventions for high schools. J Alcohol Drug Edu 50(2):1–4Google Scholar
  143. Sher KJ, Martin ED, Wood PK, Rutledge PC (1997) Alcohol use disorders and neuropsychological functioning in First-Year undergraduates. Exp Clin Psychopharmacology 5(3):304–315Google Scholar
  144. Sher KJ, Trull TJ (1994) Personality and disinhibitory psychopathology: alcoholism and antisocial personality disorder. J Abnorm Psychol 103(1):92–102PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Shin C (2001) A review of school-based drug prevention progam evaluations in the 1990’s. American J Health Edu 32(3):139–147Google Scholar
  146. Simmons RG, Blyth D (2008) Moving into adolescence: the impact of pubertal change and school context. Transaction Publishers, New BrunswickGoogle Scholar
  147. Single E, Rehm J, Robson L, Truong MV (2000) The relative risks and etiologic fractions of different causes of death and disease attributable to alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug use in Canada. Can Med Assoc J 162(12):1669–1675Google Scholar
  148. Solowij N, Stephens RS, Roffman RA, Babor T, Kadden R, Miller M et al (2002) Cognitive functioning of long-term heavy cannabis users seeking treatment. JAMA 287(9):1123–1131PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Sonuga-Barke EJ, Dalen L, Daley D, Remington B (2002) Are planning, working memory, and inhibition associated with individual differences in preschool ADHD symptoms? Dev Neuropsychol 21(3):255–272PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Soole DW, Mazerolle L, Rombouts S (2005) School based drug prevention: a systematic review of the effectiveness on illicit drug use. Drug Policy Modelling Project, Monograph 07, Griffith UniversityGoogle Scholar
  151. Sowell ER, Thompson PM, Holmes CJ, Jernigan TL, Toga AW (1999) In vivo evidence for post-adolescent brain maturation in frontal and striatal regions. Nat Neurosci 2(10):859–861PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Sowell ER, Thompson PM, Toga AW (2004) Mapping changes in the human cortex through out the span life. Neuroscientist 10:372–392PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Spear LP (2000) The adolescent brain and age-related behavioral manifestations. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 24(4):417–463PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Spooner C, Hall W (2002a) Preventing drug misuse by young people: We need to do more than ‘just say no’. Addiction 97(5):478–481PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Spooner C, Hall W (2002b) Public policy and the prevention of substance-use disorders. Curr Opin Psychiatry 15(3):235–239Google Scholar
  156. Spooner C, Mattick R, Howard J (1996) The nature and treatment of adolescent substance abuse Monograph No. 26. National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, SydneyGoogle Scholar
  157. Squeglia LM, Spadoni AD, Infante MA, Myers MG, Tapert SF (2009) Initiating moderate to heavy alcohol use predicts changes in neuropsychological functioning for adolescent girls and boys. Psychol Addict Behav 23(4):715–722PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Stewart SH, Kushner MG (2001) Introduction to the Special Issue on “Anxiety Sensitivity and Addictive Behaviors”. Addict Behav 26(6):775–785PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Stockwell T, Toumbouruo JW, Letcher P, Smart D, Sanson A, Bond L (2004) Risk and protective factors for different intensities of adolescent substance use: when does the prevention paradox apply? Drug Alcohol Rev 23:67–77PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (2010) Results from the 2009 national survey on drug use and health: volume I. Summary of national findings. Office of Applied Studies, RockvilleGoogle Scholar
  161. Swadi H (1999) Individual risk factors for adolescent substance use. Drug Alcohol Depend 55:209–224PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Tapert SF, Aarons GA, Sedlar GR, Brown SA (2001a) Adolescent substance use and sexual risk-taking behavior. J Adolesc Health 28(3):181–189PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Tapert SF, Brown GG, Kindermann SS, Cheung EH, Frank LR, Brown SA (2001b) fMRI measurement of brain dysfunction in alcohol-dependent young women. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 25(2):236–245PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Tapert SF, Brown SA (2000) Substance dependence, family history of alcohol dependence and neuropsychological functioning in adolescence. Addiction 95(7):1043–1053PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Tapert SF, Caldwell L, Burke C (2005) Alcohol and the adolescent brain: human studies. Alcohol Res Health 28(4):205–212Google Scholar
  166. Teesson M, Degenhardt L, Hall W, Lynskey M, Toumbourou J, Patton G (2005) Substance use and mental health in longitudinal perspective. In: Stockwall T, Grueneald P, Toumbourou J, Loxley W (eds) Preventing harmful substance use: the evidence base for policy and practice. Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  167. The Lancet (2008) Calling time on young people’s alcohol consumption. The Lancet 371(9616):871Google Scholar
  168. Tobler NS, Lassard T, Marshall D, Ochshorn P, Roona M (1999) Effectiveness of school-based drug prevention programs for marijuana use. Sch Psychol Int 20:105–137Google Scholar
  169. Tobler NS, Roona MR, Ochshorn P, Marshall DG, Streke AV, Stackpole KM (2000) School-based adolescent drug prevention programs: 1998 meta-analysis. J Prim Prev 20(4):275–336Google Scholar
  170. Tyas SL, Pederson LL (1998) Psychosocial factors related to adolescent smoking: a critical review of the literature. Tobacco Control 7:409–420PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Van Lier PAC, Huizink A, Crijnen A (2009) Impact of a preventive intervention targeting childhood disruptive behavior problems on tobacco and alcohol initiation from age 10 to 13 years. Drug Alcohol Depend 100(3):228–233PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Van Vliet H, Andrew G (2009) Internet-based course for the management of stress in junior high school students. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 43:305–309PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Vogl L, Teesson M, Andrews G, Bird K, Steadman B, Dillon P (2009) A computerised harm minimisation prevention program for alcohol misuse and related harms: randomised controlled trial. Addiction 104:564–575PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Volkow ND, Li TK (2007) Treating and preventing abuse, addiction, and their medical consequences. In: Tsuang MY, Stone WS, Lyons MJ (eds) Recognition and prevention of major mental and substance use disorders. American Psychiatric Publishing, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  175. Wechsler D (1945) A standardized memory scale for clinical use. J Psychol 19:87–95Google Scholar
  176. Wechsler H, Lee JE, Kuo M, Lee H (2000) College binge drinking in the 1990 s: a continuing problem. Results of the Harvard School of Public Health 1999 College Alcohol Study. J Am Coll Health 48(5):199–210Google Scholar
  177. Wenter DL, Ennett ST, Ribisl KM, Vincus AA, Rohrbach L, Ringwalt CL et al (2002) Comprehensiveness of substance use prevention programs in U.S middle schools. J Adolesc Health 30(6):455–462PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. White D, Pitts M (1998) Review: educating young people about drugs: a systematic review. Addiction 93(10):1475–1487PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Wichstrom L (1998) Alcohol intoxication and school dropout. Drug Alcohol Rev 17(4):413–421PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Williams C, Griffin KW, Macaulay AP, West TL, Gronewold E (2005) Efficacy of a drug prevention CD-ROM intervention for adolescents. Subst Use Misuse 40:869–878PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Williams CL, Wynder EL (1993) A child health report card: 1992. Prev Med 22(4):604–628PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Wilson P (1998) Cannabis and cognitive functioning. BMJ 317(7169):1394APubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Woicik PA, Stewart SH, Pihl RO, Conrod PJ (2009) The Substance use risk profile scale: a scale measuring traits linked to reinforcement-specific substance use profiles. Addict Behav 34(12):1042–1055PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Woods ER, Lin YG, Middleman A, Beckford P, Chase L, DuRant RH (1997) The associations of suicide attempts in adolescents. Pediatrics 99(6):791–796PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. World Health Organization (2008) Global survey on alcohol and health, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  186. World Health Organization (2011) Global status report on alcohol and health, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  187. Zeigler DW, Wang CC, Yoast RA, Dickinson BD, McCaffree MA, Robinowitz CB et al (2005) The neurocognitive effects of alcohol on adolescents and college students. Prev Med 40(1):23–32PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nicola C. Newton
    • 1
    Email author
  • Maeve O’Leary-Barrett
    • 2
  • Patricia J. Conrod
    • 3
  1. 1.National Drug and Alcohol Research CentreUniversity of New South WalesRandwickAustralia
  2. 2.Psychology DepartmentMcGill UniversityMontrealCanada
  3. 3.Department of PsychiatryUniversité de Montréal, CHU Hôpital Ste JustineMontrealCanada

Personalised recommendations