So much gain at 550 AU

Chapter
Part of the Springer Praxis Books book series (PRAXIS)

Abstract

The gravitational focusing effect of the Sun is one of the most amazing discoveries produced by the general theory of relativity. The first paper in this field was published by Albert Einstein in 1936 [1], but his work was virtually forgotten until 1964, when Sydney Liebes of Stanford University [2] gave the mathematical theory of gravitational focusing by a galaxy located between the Earth and a very distant cosmological object, such as a quasar.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

REFERENCES

  1. 1.
    A. Einstein, “Lens-like action of a star by the deviation of light in the gravitational field,” Science, 84 (1936), 506–507.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    S. Liebes, Jr., “Gravitational lenses,” Physical Review, 133 (1964), B835–B844.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    V. Eshleman, “Gravitational lens of the Sun: Its potential for observations and communications over interstellar distances,” Science, 205 (1979), 1133–1135.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    F. Drake, “Stars as gravitational lenses,” in G. Marx (Ed.), Proceedings of the Bioastronomy International Conference, Balatonfu¨red, Hungary, June 22–27, 1987, pp. 391–394.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    N. Cohen, “The pro’s and con’s of gravitational lenses in CETI,” in G. Marx (Ed.), Proceedings of the Bioastronomy International Conference, Balatonfu¨red, Hungary, June 22–27, 1987, p. 395.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    F. Drake and D. Sobel, Is Anyone Out There? Delacorte Press, New York, 1992. See pp. 230–234 in particular.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    N. Cohen, Gravity’s Lens, Wiley Science Editions, New York, 1988.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    C. Maccone, “Space missions outside the Solar System to exploit the gravitational lens of the Sun,” in C. Maccone (Ed.), Proceedings of the International Conference on Space Missions and Astrodynamics, Turin, Italy, June 18, 1992, published in Journal of the British Interplanetary Society, 47 (1994), 45–52.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    C. Maccone, “FOCAL: A new space mission to 550AU to exploit the gravitational lens of the Sun,” a proposal for an M3 Space Mission submitted to the European Space Agency (ESA) on May 20, 1993, on behalf of an international team of scientists and engineers. Later (October 1993) reconsidered by ESA within the Horizon 2000 Plus space mission plan.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    J. Heidmann and C. Maccone, “AstroSail and FOCAL: Two extra-Solar System missions to the Sun’s gravitational focuses,” Acta Astronautica, 35 (1994), 409–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    C. Maccone, “The SETISAIL Project,” in G. Seth Shostak (Ed.), Progress in the Search for Extraterrestrial Life: Proceedings of the 1993 Bioastronomy Symposium, University of California at Santa Cruz, August 16–20, 1993, published in Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, 74 (1995), 407–417.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    R. Orta, P. Savi, and R Tascone, “Analysis of gravitational lens antennas,” in C. Maccone (Ed.), Proceedings of the International Conference on Space Missions and Astrodynamics, Turin, Italy, June 18, 1992, published in Journal of the British Interplanetary Society, 47 (1994), 53–56.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    John D. Kraus, Radio Astronomy, Second Edition, Cygnus-Quasar Books, Powell, OH, 1966. See pp. 6-115–6-118 in particular.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    A. Hawkyard and A. Anselmi, QUASAT Industrial Phase A Study, Executive Summary, Aeritalia GSS Report QS-RP-A1-0004, 1988.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.International Academy of Astronautics and Istituto Nazionale di AstrofisicaTorino (Turin)Italy

Personalised recommendations