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Daily Regulation of Hormone Profiles

  • Andries KalsbeekEmail author
  • Eric Fliers
Chapter
Part of the Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology book series (HEP, volume 217)

Abstract

The highly coordinated output of the hypothalamic biological clock does not only govern the daily rhythm in sleep/wake (or feeding/fasting) behaviour but also has direct control over many aspects of hormone release. In fact, a significant proportion of our current understanding of the circadian clock has its roots in the study of the intimate connections between the hypothalamic clock and multiple endocrine axes. This chapter will focus on the anatomical connections used by the mammalian biological clock to enforce its endogenous rhythmicity on the rest of the body, using a number of different hormone systems as a representative example. Experimental studies have revealed a highly specialised organisation of the connections between the mammalian circadian clock neurons and neuroendocrine as well as pre-autonomic neurons in the hypothalamus. These complex connections ensure a logical coordination between behavioural, endocrine and metabolic functions that will help the organism adjust to the time of day most efficiently. For example, activation of the orexin system by the hypothalamic biological clock at the start of the active phase not only ensures that we wake up on time but also that our glucose metabolism and cardiovascular system are prepared for this increased activity. Nevertheless, it is very likely that the circadian clock present within the endocrine glands plays a significant role as well, for instance, by altering these glands’ sensitivity to specific stimuli throughout the day. In this way the net result of the activity of the hypothalamic and peripheral clocks ensures an optimal endocrine adaptation of the metabolism of the organism to its time-structured environment.

Keywords

Hypothalamus Autonomic nervous system Orexin Glucose Melatonin GABA Liver TSH 

Abbreviations

ACTH

Adrenocorticotrophic hormone

ANS

Autonomic nervous system

AVP

Arginine vasopressin

AVPV

Anteroventral periventricular nucleus

BAT

Brown adipose tissue

CLOCK

Circadian locomotor output cycles kaput

CNS

Central nervous system

CRH

Corticotrophin-releasing hormone

CSF

Cerebrospinal fluid

D2

Type 2 deiodinase

DMH

Dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus

E

Oestrogen

ER

Oestrogen receptor

FFA

Free fatty acid

GABA

Gamma-aminobutyric acid

GnIH

Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone

GnRH

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone

HPA

Hypothalamo–pituitary–adrenal

HPG

Hypothalamo–pituitary–gonadal

HPT

Hypothalamo–pituitary–thyroid

HSL

Hormone-sensitive lipase

ICU

Intensive care unit

ICV

Intracerebroventricular

IML

Intermediolateral column

L/D

Light/dark

L/L

Light/light, i.e. constant light

LH

Luteinising hormone

LM

Light microscopy

LPL

Lipoprotein lipase

MPOA

Medial preoptic area

NAMPT

Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase

NPFF

Neuropeptide FF

NPY

Neuropeptide Y

OVX

Ovariectomy

PACAP

Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide

PBEF

Pre-B-cell colony-enhancing factor

PeN

Periventricular nucleus

pePVN

Periventricular PVN

Per

Period

PF

Perifornical area

PRV

Pseudo rabies virus

PVN

Paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus

Ra

Rate of appearance

RFRP

RF-amide-related peptide

RHT

Retinohypothalamic tract

SCG

Superior cervical ganglion

SCN

Suprachiasmatic nucleus

SEM

Standard error of the mean

SON

Supraoptic nucleus

subPVN

Subparaventricular PVN

T2DM

Type 2 diabetes mellitus

T3

Triiodothyronine

T4

Thyroxine

TH

Tyrosine hydroxylase

TRH

Thyrotrophin-releasing hormone

TSH

Thyroid-stimulating hormone

TTX

Tetrodotoxin

VIP

Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide

VMH

Ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus

VP

Vasopressin

WAT

White adipose tissue

ZT

Zeitgeber time

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors thank Henk Stoffels for the preparation of the images and Wilma Verweij for the correction of the manuscript.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Endocrinology and MetabolismG2-133, Academic Medical Center (AMC) of the University of AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of Hypothalamic Integration MechanismsNetherlands Institute for Neuroscience, an institute of the Royal Dutch Academy of Arts and SciencesAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Department of Endocrinology and MetabolismF5-171, Academic Medical Center (AMC) of the University of AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands

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