Pharmacological Modulators of the Circadian Clock as Potential Therapeutic Drugs: Focus on Genotoxic/Anticancer Therapy
The circadian clock is an evolutionary conserved intrinsic timekeeping mechanism that controls daily variations in multiple biological processes. One important process that is modulated by the circadian clock is an organism’s response to genotoxic stress, such as that induced by anticancer drug and radiation treatments. Numerous observations made in animal models have convincingly demonstrated that drug-induced toxicity displays prominent daily variations; therefore, undesirable side effects could be significantly reduced by administration of drugs at specific times when they are better tolerated. In some cases, these critical times of the day coincide with increased sensitivity of tumor cells allowing for a greater therapeutic index. Despite encouraging results of chronomodulated therapies, our knowledge of molecular mechanisms underlying these observations remains sketchy. Here we review recent progress in deciphering mechanistic links between circadian and stress response pathways with a focus on how these findings could be applied to anticancer clinical practice. We discuss the potential for using high-throughput screens to identify small molecules that can modulate basic parameters of the entire circadian machinery as well as functional activity of its individual components. We also describe the discovery of several small molecules that can pharmacologically modulate clock and that have a potential to be developed into therapeutic drugs. We believe that translational applications of clock-targeting pharmaceuticals are twofold: they may be developed into drugs to treat circadian-related disorders or used in combination with existing therapeutic strategies to improve therapeutic index of a given genotoxic treatment via the intrinsic clock mechanism.
KeywordsCancer treatment Circadian DNA damage Pharmacological modulation Small molecule screen
This work was supported by NIGMS grants GM095874 and GM075226 to M.P.A. and AG033881 and AG033604 to R.V.K.
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