A Fuzzy Decision System for an Autonomous Car Parking

  • Carlos Martín Sánchez
  • Matilde Santos Peñas
  • Luis Garmendia Salvador
Part of the Intelligent Systems Reference Library book series (ISRL, volume 33)


In this paper, the design of a fuzzy decision system for autonomous parallel car parking is presented. The modeling of the problem, the physics involved, the fuzzy sets assigned to the linguistic variables and the inference rules are explained. Different fuzzy operators have been tested in the generated simulation environment and the results have been compared. The decision system is proposed as a benchmark to show the influence of the different fuzzy strategies on the final decision. The comparison is made in terms of number of maneuvers for parking the vehicle. It also depends on the range of measurements to environmental objects around the car and on the starting position. The final implementation of the parking system in a Java Applet can be tested in the web using any browser.


Fuzzy Logic Fuzzy System Fuzzy Rule Parking Space Fuzzy Operator 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Zadeh, L.A.: Fuzzy sets. Information and Control 8, 338–353 (1965)MathSciNetzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Zadeh, L.A.: The concept of linguistic variable and its application to approximate reasoning, parts I, II, III. Inform. Sci. 8, 199–249 (1975)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Paromtchik, I.E., Laugier, C.: Autonomous Parallel Parking of a Nonholonomic vehicle. In: Proc. IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symp., pp. 13–18 (1996)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Oentaryo, R.J., Pasquier, M.: Self-trained automated parking system. In: Proc. of the 8th IEEE International Conference on Control, Automation, Robotics and Vision, vol. 2, pp. 1005–1010 (2004)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Höglund, P.G.: Parking, energy consumption and air pollution. Science of The Total Environment 334-335, 39–45 (2004)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gorinevsky, D., Kapitanovsky, A., Goldenberg, A.: Neural network architecture and controller design for automated car parking. IEEE Trans. Contr. Syst. Technol. 4, 50–56 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cheng, C.W., Chang, S.J., Li, T.H.: Parallel-parking control of autonomous mobile robot. In: Proc. Int. Conf. Industrial Electronics, Control and Instrumentation, pp. 1299–1304 (1997)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Suruz, M.M., Wail, G.: Intelligent parallel parking of a car-like mobile robot using RFID technology. In: Proc. ROSE 2007 Int. Workshop on Robotic and Sensors, pp. 1–6 (2007)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ono, S., et al.: Parking vehicle detection system by using laser range sensor mounted on a probe car. In: Proc. of Intelligent Vehicle Symposium (2002)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Xu, J., Chen, G., Xie, M.: Vision-guided automatic parking for smart car. In: Proc. of the IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium, Dearbon, MI, pp. 725–730 (2000)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Zhu, C.H., Hirahara, K., Ikeuchi, K.: Street-Parking vehicle detection using line scan camera. IEEE (2003)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    La Valle, S.M.: Planning algorithms. Cambridge University Press (2006)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kanayama, Y., Hartman, B.I.: Smooth local path planning for autonomous vehicles. In: Proc. of the IEEE Int. Conf. on Robotics and Automation, Scottsdale, USA, pp. 1265–1270 (1989)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Laumond, J.-P., Jacobs, P.E., Taix, M., Murray, R.M.: A motion planner for nonholonomic mobile robots. IEEE Trans. on Robotics and Automation 10(5), 577–593 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Dolgov, D., Thrun, S., Montemerlo, M., Diebel, J.: Path planning for autonomous driving in unknown environments. In: Proc. of the 11th Int. Symp. On Experimental Robotics ISER, Athens, Greece (2008)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Likhachev, M., Ferguson, D.: Planning dynamically-feasible maneuvers for autonomous vehicles. In: Proc. of Robotics: Sciences and Systems IV, Zurich, Switzerland (June 2008)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Latombe, J.C.: Robot motion planning. Kluwer Academic Publishers (1991)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Valverde, L., Santos, M., López, V.: Fuzzy decision system for safety on roads. In: Intelligent Decision Making Systems, pp. 326–331. World Scientific (2009)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Driankov, D., Saffiotti, A.: Fuzzy Logic Techniques for Autonomous Vehicle Navigation. Physic-Verlag, Heidelberg (2001)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Pérez, J., Gajate, A., Milanés, V., Onieva, E., Santos, M.: Design and implementation of a neuro-fuzzy system for longitudinal control of autonomous vehicles. In: 2010 IEEE World Congress on Computational Intelligence WCCI FUZZ-IEEE, pp. 1112–1117 (2010)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bentalba, S., El Hajjaji, A., Rachid, A.: Fuzzy Parking and Point Stabilization: Application Car Dynamics Model. In: Proc. 5th IEEE Mediterranean, Cyprus (1997)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Holve, R., Protzel, P.: Reverse Parking of a Model Car with Fuzzy Control. In: Proc. of the 4th European Cong. on Intelligent Techniques and Soft Computing - EUFIT 1996, Aachen, pp. 2171–2175 (1996)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Yasunobu, S., Murai, Y.: Parking control based on predictive fuzzy control. In: Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Fuzzy Syst., pp. 1338–1341 (1994)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Chiu, C.S., Lian, K.Y.: Fuzzy gain scheduling for parallel parking a car-like robot. IEEE Trans. Control Syst., Technol. 13(6), 1084–1092 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Chang, S.J.: Autonomous fuzzy parking control of a car-like mobile robot. IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern., Part A 33(4), 451–465 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Martín, C., Garmendia, L., Santos, M., González del Campo, R.: Influence of different strategies and operators on a fuzzy decision system for car parking. In: Intelligent Decision Making Systems, pp. 345–350. World Scientific (2009)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Montenegro, D., Santos, M., Garmendia, L.: An educational example for learning fuzzy systems. In: 7th IFAC Symposium on Advances in Control Education, Madrid, España (2006)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Baturone, I., Moreno-Velo, F.J., Sanchez-Solano, S., Ollero, A.: Automatic design of fuzzy controllers for car-like autonomous robots. IEEE Transaction on Fuzzy System 12(4), 447–465 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Zhao, Y., Collins, E.G.: Robust automatic parallel parking in tight spaces via fuzzy logic. Robotics and Autonomous Systems 51, 111–127 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Li, T.-H.S., Chang, S.-J., Chen, Y.-X.: Implementation of human-like driving skills by autonomous fuzzy behavior control on an FPGA-based car-like mobile robots. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 50(5), 867–880 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Miyata, H., Ohki, M., Yokouchi, Y., Ohkita, M.: Control of the autonomous mobile robot DREAM-1 for a parallel parking. Math. Comput. Simul. 41(1-2), 129–138 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ohkita, M., Miyata, H., Miura, M., Kouno, H.: Travelling experiment of an autonomous mobile robot for a flush parking. In: Proceedings of the 2nd IEEE International Conference on Fuzzy Systems, San Francisco, CA, pp. 327–332 (1993)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Holve, R., Protzel, P.: Reverse parking of a mobile car with fuzzy control. In: Proceedings of the 4th European Congress on Intelligent Techniques and Soft Computing, pp. 2171–2175 (1996)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Demirli, K., Khoshnejad, M.: Autonomous parallel parking of a car-like mobile robot by a neuro-fuzzy sensor-based controller. Fuzzy Sets and Systems 160, 2876–2891 (2009)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Paromtchik, I.E., Laugier, C.: Motion generation and control for parking an autonomous vehicle. In: Proc. of the IEEE Int. Conf. on Robotics and Automation, Minneapolis, USA, pp. 3117–3122 (1996)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    IMSE Centro Nacional de Microelectrónica. Herramientas de CAD para Lógica Difusa. Xfuzzy 3.0. Seville (2003),
  37. 37.
    Schweizer, B., Sklar, A.: Probabilistic Metric Spaces. North-Holland, NY (1960)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    López, V., Santos, M., Montero, J.: Fuzzy Specification in Real Estate Market Decision Making. Int. J. of Computational Intelligence Systems 3(1), 8–20 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Farias, G., Santos, M., López, V.: Making decisions on brain tumour diagnosis by soft computing techniques. Soft Computing 14, 1287–1296 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carlos Martín Sánchez
    • 1
  • Matilde Santos Peñas
    • 1
  • Luis Garmendia Salvador
    • 2
  1. 1.Dpto. Arquitectura de Computadores y Automática, Facultad de InformáticaUniversidad Complutense de MadridMadridSpain
  2. 2.Dpto. Inteligencia Artificial e Ingeniería del Software, Facultad de InformáticaUniversidad Complutense de MadridMadridSpain

Personalised recommendations