Leaders in Need of Followers: Emerging Powers in Global Governance

  • Stefan A. Schirm
Part of the Global Power Shift book series (GLOBAL)


In the last decade, policy-makers, the media and academic research have been increasingly discussing the new role of emerging powers in the world economy and in global governance. Countries such as Brazil, China, India and South Africa as well as Germany, Japan and Russia have been assigned a greater influence in economic as well as political matters in their regions and in world politics. Often labelled as ‘regional powers’, ‘middle powers’ or ‘would-be great powers’ (Hurrell 2006; Nolte 2006), ‘uncertain powers’ (Maull 2006: 281), and ‘new titans’ (The Economist 2006), these countries are today widely perceived as pivotal states in international relations. The reasons for the assignment of a new role and often of increased power to these states are their demographic and geographic size, their economic and military capacities and their political aspirations. The countries defined here under the rubric of ‘emerging powers’ dominate their neighbours in terms of power over resources, that is, population, territory, military capacity and gross domestic product. In addition, they articulate a wish to change the distribution of power in the international system and to assume leadership roles in global governance.


International Monetary Fund World Trade Organization Trade Policy Security Council Leadership Project 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



An earlier version of this article was presented at the ECPR Joint Session Workshop on ‘The Rise of (New) Regional Powers in Global and Regional Politics’, European Consortium for Political Research, Helsinki, 7–12 May 2007. I am grateful to Hanns Maull, Alfredo Valladão, Laura Carsten, the participants of the ECPR workshop and to the anonymous reviewers for valuable comments.


  1. Agence France Presse. (2004). WTO-Kompromiss über Abbau von Handelshemmnissen rückt näher, 31 July.Google Scholar
  2. Amorim, C. (2003). The real Cancún. The Wall Street Journal, 25 September.
  3. Amorim, C. (2004a). The foreign policy of the Lula government. Lecture by the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Brazil at the London School of Economics (LSE), London, 17 March.
  4. Amorim, C. (2004b). The new dynamic in world trade is multipolar. Article by the Minister published in The Financial Times.
  5. Amorim, C. (2004c). Statement of the Brazilian Foreign Minister at the Joint Press Conference of the WTO Meeting of Brazil, India (Trade Minister Nath), USA (USTR Robert Zoellick), Australia (Trade Minister Mark Vaile), and the EU (Trade Commissioner Pascal Lamy). Transcript of the Joint Press Conference, 13 June, Sao Paulo.
  6. Bennis, W. (2006). The end of leadership: Exemplary leadership is impossible without full inclusion, initiatives, and cooperation of followers. In W. E. Rosenbach & R. L. Taylor (Eds.), Contemporary issues in leadership (pp. 129–142). Boulder: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  7. Bielsa, R. (2005). Statement of the Argentine Minister of Foreign Affairs. United Nations General Assembly – General Debate, 18 September.
  8. Bundespresseamt (BPA). (2000a). Press conference of the federal government. Press Secretary Bela Anda, 14 January, Federal Press Office, Berlin.Google Scholar
  9. Bundespresseamt (BPA). (2000b). Press conference of the federal government. Press Secretary Bela Anda, 1 March, Federal Press Office, Berlin.Google Scholar
  10. Bundespresseamt (BPA). (2000c). Press conference of the federal government. Chancellor Gerhard Schröder, 9 March, Federal Press Office, Berlin.Google Scholar
  11. Clement, W. (2004). Clement begrüßt erfolgreiche WTO-Verhandlungen. Statement of the German Minister of the Economy, press release by the Ministry, 2 August.,did=38690.html
  12. Corriere, D. S. (2000). Fmi, l’Europa sceglie Koehler, 14 March, p. 23.Google Scholar
  13. de Lima, M. R. S., & Hirst, M. (2006). Brazil as an intermediate state and regional power: Action, choice and responsibilities. International Affairs, 82(1), 21–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Decker, C. (2003). Wo war der Wille in Cancún? Der Fehlschlag der WTO Ministerkonferenz. Internationale Politik, 58(10), 57–60.Google Scholar
  15. Delgado, N. G., & de Soares, A. C. O. (2005). The G-20: Its origins, evolution, meaning and prospects (Global Issue Papers, Vol. 25). Berlin/Rio de Janeiro: Heinrich- Böll-Stiftung.Google Scholar
  16. Dinger, D. (2006). Zwischen Furcht und Bewunderung? Italienische Haltungen zur neuen deutschen Außenpolitik. Frankfurt/Main: Peter Lang Verlag.Google Scholar
  17. EuroNews. (2004). EU findet gemeinsame Linie für WTO-Verhandlungen in der Doha-Runde. 26 July.Google Scholar
  18. Falke, A. (2005). EU–USA trade relations in the Doha Development Round: Market access versus a post-modern trade policy agenda. European Foreign Affairs Review, 10(3), 339–357.Google Scholar
  19. Falke, A. (2006). German trade policy: The decline of liberal leadership. In H. W. Maull (Ed.), Germany’s uncertain power. Foreign policy of the Berlin Republic (pp. 185–198). Basingstoke: Palgrave.Google Scholar
  20. Ferraino, G. (2000). Dopo Francia e Olanda, anche il Regno Unito dà il suo appoggio al candidato tedesco. Fmi, Blair spiana la strada a Koehler. Corriere della Sera, 11 March, p. 23.Google Scholar
  21. Fischer, J. (2004a). Für eine Reform der Vereinten Nationen. Speech at the 49th General Assembly of the UN, 23 April, New York.
  22. Fischer, J. (2004b). Unser Einfluss in Brüssel wird eher unterschätzt. Interview with the German Foreign Minister in Stuttgarter Zeitung, 22 October.
  23. Frattini, F. (2004a). Italy does not want nationalist challenges. Corriere de la Sera, 27 September. Interview with the Italian Foreign Minister, in Maurizio Caprara.
  24. Frattini, F. (2004b). Speech before the 59th General Assembly of the UN.
  25. Ganguly, S. (2002). Introduction: India as an emerging power. The Journal of Strategic Studies, 25(4), 1–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Glos, M. (2005). Bundespressekonferenz zur WTO-Ministerkonferenz in Hongkong. Statement of the German Minister of Economy, Press Release of the Ministry (BMWi), 19 December.,did=87586.html
  27. Glos, M. (2006). Statement of the German Minister of Economy, Press Release of the Ministry (BMWi), 1 January.,did=1060000.html
  28. Group of 20 (G20) (2005). G-20 ministerial declaration, New Dehli, 19 March 2005. In: G-20 two years of activities of the G-20: Moving forward the Doha Round.
  29. Guérot, U. (2007). Alors viens, Marianne! Deutschland muss Frankreich europapolitisch aus der Schmollecke holen. Internationale Politik, 62(1), 39–45.Google Scholar
  30. Hakim, P. (2004). The reluctant partner. Foreign Affairs, 83(1), 114–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hellmann, G., & Roos, U. (2007). Das deutsche Streben nach einem ständigen Sitz im UN-Sicherheitsrat (Institut für Entwicklung und Frieden INEFReport, Report No. 92). Duisburg: INEF.Google Scholar
  32. Hulsman, J. C., & Techau, J. (2007). Zu hohe Erwartungen? EU-Präsidentschaft und G-8-Vorsitz. 2007 verspricht ein Schlüsseljahr für die deutsche Außenpolitik zu warden. Internationale Politik, 62(1), 16–25.Google Scholar
  33. Hurrell, A. (2006). Hegemony, liberalism and global order: What space for would-be great powers? International Affairs, 82(1), 1–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hurrell, A., & Narlikar, A. (2005). A new politics of confrontation? Developing countries at Cancún and beyond. UK: Mimeo, Oxford University/Cambridge University.Google Scholar
  35. Ikenberry, J. G. (1989). Rethinking the origins of American hegemony. Political Science Quarterly, 104(3), 375–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ikenberry, J. G. (2001). After victory: Institutions, strategic restraint, and the rebuilding of order after major wars. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Katada, S. N., Maull, H. W., & Inoguchi, T. (Eds.). (2004). Global governance: Germany and Japan in the international system. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishers.Google Scholar
  38. Kindleberger, C. P. (1981). Dominance and leadership in the international economy: Exploitation, public goods, and free rides. International Studies Quarterly, 25(2), 242–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kirchner, N. (2005a). Statement by His Excellency Dr Nestor Kirchner, President of the Argentine Republic. UN general assembly – plenary meeting.
  40. Kirchner, N. (2005b). Statement of the Argentine President quoted in Buenos Aires Herald 11 May, p. 3.
  41. La Repubblica. (2000). Fmi, accordo su Koch-Weser cade il veto opposto dai Francesi, 15 February, p. 37.Google Scholar
  42. Lula da Silva, L. I., Inacio, L. (2003). Speech of the Brazilian President before the 58th General Assembly of the UN, 23 September, New York.
  43. Lula da Silva, L. I., & Inacio, L. (2005a). Mensagem ao Congresso Nacional [State of the Union Address to the Congress]. Brasilia: Presidência da República do Brasil.Google Scholar
  44. Lula da Silva, L. I., Inacio, L. (2005b). Statement of the Brazilian President before the South America–Arab Summit in Brasilia, Buenos Aires Herald, 11 May, p. 7.
  45. Lula da Silva, L. I., Inacio, L. (2006). Statement by HE Mr Luiza Inacio Lula da Silva, President of the Federative Republic of Brazil at the General Debate of the 61st Session of the United Nations General Assembly, 19 September, New York.
  46. Malamud, C. (2005). The increase in bilateral conflicts in Latin America: Its consequences in and outside the region. Real Instituto Elcano, Madrid.
  47. Marzano, A. (2003). Statement of the Italian Minister for Productive Activities (Italy on Behalf of the Presidency of the European Union) at the V Session of the WTO Ministerial Conference in Cancun, 11 September, WTO Document WT/MIN(03)/ST/6, Geneva.
  48. Maull, H. W. (2006). Conclusion: Uncertain power – German foreign policy into the twenty-first century. In H. W. Maull (Ed.), Germany’s uncertain power. Foreign policy of the Berlin republic (pp. 273–286). Basingstoke: Palgrave.Google Scholar
  49. Mayoral, C. (2004). La Argentina y el Consejo de Seguridad de la ONU. Article by the Argentinian Embassador to the UN in La Nacion, 19 July.
  50. Meier, K. (2005). Brasilianische Außenpolitik im Jahr 2005: Welchen Preis zahlt die Regierung Lula für einen ‘Multilateralismus des Südens’? Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, Bonn.
  51. Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores. (2005). Sobre el proceso de selección del Director General de la OMC. Informe para la Prensa No 127/05, 19 April.
  52. Ministério de Relações Exteriores. (1998/2005). O Brasil no Conselho de Segurança.
  53. Narlikar, A., & Tussie, D. (2004). The G20 at the Cancun Ministerial: Developing countries and their evolving coalitions in the WTO. The World Economy, 27(7), 947–966.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Nolte, D. (2006). Macht und Machthierarchien in den internationalen Beziehungen: Ein Analysekonzept für die Forschung über regionale Führungsmächte (German Institute of Global and Area Studies, GIGA Working Paper, Vol. 29). Hamburg: GIGA.Google Scholar
  55. Nye, J. S. (2003). The paradox of American power: Why the world’s only superpower can’t go it alone. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  56. Pedersen, T. (2002). Cooperative hegemony: Power, ideas and institutions in regional integration. Review of International Studies, 28, 677–696.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Pfaffenbach, B. (2005). Wird die Doha-Runde ihrer Zielsetzung als Entwicklungsrunde gerecht? Speech of the Deputy Minister of the Economy, 7 June.,did=67944.html
  58. Rodrik, D. (2003). Argentina: A case of globalisation gone too far or not far enough? In J. J. Teunissen & A. Akkerman (Eds.), The crisis that was not prevented: Argentina, the IMF, and globalisation. The Hague: Forum on Debt and Development. Scholar
  59. Russett, B. (1985). The mysterious case of vanishing hegemony; or, is Mark Twain really dead? International Organization, 39(2), 207–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Sashkin, M. (2006). Leadership that matters: A new vision of leadership. In W. E. Rosenbach & R. L. Taylor (Eds.), Contemporary issues in leadership (pp. 7–20). Boulder: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  61. Schirm, S. A. (2005). Führungsindikatoren und Erklärungsvariablen für die neue internationale Politik Brasiliens. Lateinamerika Analysen, 4(11), 107–130.Google Scholar
  62. Schirm, S. A. (2009). Ideas and interests in global financial governance: Comparing German and US preference formation. Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 22(3), 501–521.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Schoeman, M. (2000). South Africa as an emerging middle power. African Security Review, 9(3), 47–58. Scholar
  64. Schröder, G. (2000a). Statement by the German Chancellor. Press Release No. 88/00, Bundespresseamt, 3 March, Berlin.Google Scholar
  65. Schröder, G. (2000b). Presseunterrichtung durch Bundeskanzler Schröder und den Premier-minister des Königreichs Niederlande, Wim Kok, am 9. März 2000 im Bundeskanzleramt. Bundespresseamt BPA, 9 March, Berlin.Google Scholar
  66. Schröder, G. (2004). Speech at the German–Japan Economic Meeting, Tokio 9.12.04.
  67. Seixas Corrêa, L. F. de. (2005). Statement by Ambassador Luiz Felipe de Seixas Corrêa at theV Special Meeting of the Council for Trade and Economic Development (COTED) of CARICOM, Georgetown, Guyana, 06/01/2005.
  68. The Economist. (1997). Argentina and Brazil: Sweet nothings? 18 September.Google Scholar
  69. The Economist. (2004). Brazil’s foreign policy: A giant stirs, 12 June, pp. 50–51.Google Scholar
  70. The Economist. (2005). World trade: Hard truths, 20 December.Google Scholar
  71. The Economist. (2006). The new titans. A survey of the world economy, 16 September.Google Scholar
  72. United Nations (UN) (2003). Resolutionen 58/1 A und B: Beitragsschlüssel fü die Aufteilung der Ausgabenlast der Vereinten Nationen 16.10.03/23.12.03.
  73. United Nations (UN) (2007). Ranking of military and political contributions to UN operations, 31 July, New York.
  74. Valladão, A. (2006). Brazil: An ambiguous leader. Paper prepared for the GIGA Conference on Regional Powers in Asia, Africa, Latin America and the Middle East, 11–12 December, Hamburg.Google Scholar
  75. Veiga, P. da. M. (2005). Brazil and the G-20 group of developing countries, managing the challenges of WTO participation case study 7.
  76. World Trade Organization (WTO). (2004). WTO meeting US, EU, Brazil, India, and Australia, Joint Press Conference (C. Amorim, P. Lamy, R. Zoellick, M. Vaile, Nath). 13 June, Sao Paulo.

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stefan A. Schirm
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Ruhr-University BochumBochumGermany
  2. 2.John Hopkins UniversityWashingtonUSA

Personalised recommendations