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Zur Evolution der Theory of Mind – evolutionsbiologische Aspekte und neuronale Mechanismen

  • Martin BrüneEmail author
  • Max Bender
Chapter

Zusammenfassung

Das wissenschaftliche Konstrukt Theory of Mind (ToM) ist von hoher interdisziplinärer Relevanz. Neben vergleichenden Untersuchungen der ToM bei nichtmenschlichen Primaten (Premack u. Woodruff 1978; Tomasello et al. 2003) hat sich vor allem die Entwicklungspsychologie (Wellman 1985; Leslie 1987), in den letzten zwei Jahrzehnten auch die psychopathologische Forschung, mit Störungen der ToM beschäftigt (Brüne u. Brüne-Cohrs 2006). Dieser interdisziplinäre Ansatz steht in unmittelbarem Zusammenhang mit der Hypothese vom »sozialen Gehirn« (Brothers 1990). Ihr zufolge verfügen Primaten einschließlich des Menschen über spezialisierte zentralnervös repräsentierte »Module« (Fodor 1983), deren stammesgeschichtliche Entwicklung mit der Komplexität der für Primaten typischen Sozialstrukturen steht und die sich daher primär infolge von Selektionsdrücken der sozialen Umwelt entwickelten (Dunbar 2003). Die ToM ist demnach als Teil eines sozialkognitiven Moduls aufzufassen, bei dem jedoch definitorische Unschärfen, insbesondere im Hinblick auf die Abgrenzung von »Empathie«, bestehen (Premack u. Woodruff 1978; Brüne et al. 2003; Singer 2006).

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Forschungsabteilung für kognitive Neuropsychiatrie und psychiatrische Präventivmedizin LWL Universitätsklinikum BochumKlinik für Psychiatrie, Psychotherapie und Präventivmedizin der Ruhr-Universität BochumBochumDeutschland
  2. 2.Institut für Sozialmedizin, Epidemiologie und Gesundheitsökonomie derCharité – Universitätsmedizin BerlinBerlinDeutschland

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