It is known that damage results from microscopic motions in the structures, as it is caused by microfractures and microcavities resulting in the decreasing of the material stiffness. There is wide literature on this topic and it is difficult to be exhaustive. Let us mention [145,151,152] modelling damage within the framework of continuum mechanics. The damage quantities are internal quantities which are involved in the free energy of materials [104, 129, 138, 151, 152].
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