State Sum Models and Observables

  • Mauro Carfora
  • Annalisa Marzuoli
Part of the Lecture Notes in Physics book series (LNP, volume 845)


From a historical viewpoint the Ponzano–Regge asymptotic formula for the \(6j\) symbol of the group SU(2), together with Penrose’s original idea of combinatorial spacetime out of coupling of angular momenta—or spin networks, is the precursor of the discretized approaches to 3-dimensional (3D) Euclidean quantum gravity collectively referred to as ‘state sum models’ after the 1992 paper by Turaev and Viro.


Dual Graph Reidemeister Move Dehn Surgery Ambient Isotopy Topological Quantum Field Theory 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mauro Carfora
    • 1
  • Annalisa Marzuoli
    • 1
  1. 1.Dipto. Fisica Nucleare e TeoricaIstituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica, Sez. di Pavia, Università degli Studi di PaviaPaviaItaly

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