The Evolution of the Universe
The expansion of the Universe and the Big Bang are shown to be derivable from equations based on the general theory of relativity. The history of the Universe is discussed, as are various observations confirming the picture of the Big Bang, such as the abundance of light elements and the cosmological microwave background radiation. Dark matter and dark energy are introduced, and their properties and the arguments for their presence. Reasons for the assumption of a so-called inflationary phase shortly after the Big Bang are given. The chapter concludes with several open questions that are the subject of today’s research in cosmology.