Automatic Synthesis of SRN Models from System Operation Templates for Availability Analysis

  • Kumiko Tadano
  • Jiangwen Xiang
  • Masahiro Kawato
  • Yoshiharu Maeno
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 6894)


In order to cost-effectively verify whether system designs of information systems satisfy availability requirements, it is reasonable to utilize a model-based availability assessment of system design containing administrative operation procedures and a system configuration, because it does not require installing and testing in a real environment. However, since the model-based availability assessments typically require special expertise in mathematical modeling, it would be difficult for a practical system designer to build a correct availability model to assess his/her system design. Although there have been several methods to automatically synthesize the availability model from widely-used design description languages, the synthesized models do not capture impacts caused by operations in operation procedures on availability. To address this issue, this paper proposes a method to automatically synthesize an availability model in the form of stochastic reward net (SRN) from Systems Modeling Language (SysML) diagrams to specify operation procedures and system configurations. Modeling all the features of individual operations is impractical because the amount of required information in SysML diagrams input by system designers becomes larger as the number of features increases. To design the availability models with a smallest possible number of features, we classify typical availability-related features of operations into operation templates. The feasibility of the proposed method is studied by a case study based on a real system of a local government. We succeeded in synthesizing the availability models from the SysML diagrams based on an operation procedure and system configuration of the real system, and analyzing the synthesized availability models with an existing model analysis tool.


availability model stochastic reward Nets (SRNs) Petri nets Systems Modeling Language (SysML) system operations 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Trivedi, K.S., Wang, D., Hunt, D.J., Rindos, A., Smith, W.E., Vashaw, B.: Availability Modeling of SIP Protocol on IBM WebSphere. In: Proc. of PRDC 2008 (2008)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Smith, W.E., Trivedi, K.S., Tomek, L.A., Ackaret, J.: Availability analysis of blade server systems. IBM System J. 47(4) (2008)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Castelli, V., Harper, R.E., Heidelberger, P., Hunter, S.W., Trivedi, K.S., Vaidyanathan, K., Zeggert, W.P.: Proactive management of software aging. IBM Journal of Research and Development 45, 311–332 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    OMG Unified Modeling Language (OMG UML), Superstracture Version 2.3,
  5. 5.
    OMG Systems Modeling Language (OMG SysML) Version 1.2 (2010),
  6. 6.
    The SAE Architecture Analysis & Design Language (AADL) (2009),
  7. 7.
    Huszerl, G., Majzik, I., Pataricza, A., Kosmidis, K., Dal Cin, M.: Quantitative Analysis of UML Statechart Models of Dependable Systems. The Computer Journal 45(3), 260–277 (2002)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bondavalli, A., Maizik, I., Mura, I.: Automated Dependability Analysis of UML Designs. In: Proc. 2nd Int. Symp. on Objectoriented Real-time Distributed Computing, ISORC 1999 (1999)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Pai, G.J., Dugan, J.B.: Automatic synthesis of dynamic fault trees from UML system models. In: Proc. of the 13th Int. Symp. on Software Reliability Engineering (ISSRE 2002), pp. 243–254 (2002)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Khan, R.H., Heegaard, P.E.: Translation from UML to SPN model: A performance modeling framework for managing behavior of multiple collaborative sessions and instances. In: Proc. of Int. Conf. on Computer Design and Applications, ICCDA (2010)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Rugina, A.E., Kanoun, K., Kaâniche, M.: A System Dependability Modeling Framework Using AADL and GSPNs. In: DSN 2006 Workshops on Software Architectures for Dependable Systems (WADS 2006), pp. 14–38 (2006)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Rugina, A.E., Kanoun, K., Kaâniche, M.: The ADAPT Tool: From AADL Architectural Models to Stochastic Petri Nets through Model Transformation. In: EDCC 2008, pp. 85–90 (2008)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bernardi, S., Merseguer, J., Petriu, D.C.: A Dependability profile within MARTE. Journal of Software and Systems Modeling, 1–14 (August 2009)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bernardi, S., Merseguer, J.: Performance evaluation of UML design with Stochastic Well-formed Nets. Journal of Systems and Software 80(11), 1843–1865 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Machida, F., Kim, D.S., Trivedi, K.S.: Component-based Availability Modeling for Cloud Service Management. In: Proc. 21st Int. Symp. on Software Reliability Engineering, ISSRE 2010 (2010)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Trivedi, K.S.: Probability and Statistics with Reliability, Queuing, and Computer Science Applications. John Wiley, New York (2001)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kimura, D., Osaki, T., Yanoo, K., Izukura, S., Sakaki, H., Kobayashi, A.: Evaluation of it systems considering characteristics as system of systems. In: Proc. of 6th IEEE international conference on System of Systems Engineering (SoSE 2011). IEEE, Los Alamitos (in press 2011)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hirel, C., et al.: SPNP: Stochastic petri nets. Version 6.0. In: Haverkort, B.R., Bohnenkamp, H.C., Smith, C.U. (eds.) TOOLS 2000. LNCS, vol. 1786, pp. 354–357. Springer, Heidelberg (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Trivedi, K.S., Sahner, R.: Sharpe at the age of twenty two. SIGMETRICS Perform. Eval. Rev. 36(4), 52–57 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Roy, A., Kim, D.S., Trivedi, K.S.: Cyber security analysis using attack countermeasure trees. In: Proc. the Sixth Annual Workshop on Cyber Security and Information Intelligence Research, CSIIRW 2010 (2010)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Swain, A.D., Guttman, H.E.: Handbook of human reliability analysis with emphasis on nuclear power plant applications. NUREG/CR-1278, USNRC (1983)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Operation procedure document Ver. 1.0 (2008),

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kumiko Tadano
    • 1
  • Jiangwen Xiang
    • 1
  • Masahiro Kawato
    • 1
  • Yoshiharu Maeno
    • 1
  1. 1.Service Platforms Research LaboratoriesNEC CorporationKawasakiJapan

Personalised recommendations