Pressure Studies

  • Andrew Prins
  • Alf AdamsEmail author
  • Stephen Sweeney
Part of the Springer Series in Materials Science book series (SSMATERIALS, volume 150)


High pressure is one of the most valuable characterization tools available in semiconductor research. In this chapter, we show how it has been used directly to measure some of the fundamental properties of materials and also to investigate electronic and optoelectronic devices, resulting in improved theoretical models of material properties and optimized device performance. We hope that the examples we give and the experimental methods we describe will inspire others to use this powerful but underused research technique.


Threshold Current Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy Electronic Band Structure Quantum Cascade Laser Auger Recombination 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors would like to thank I.P. Marko and S.R. Jin for their contributions to this chapter and would also like to thank the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) for their support of high pressure activities at the University of Surrey.


  1. 1.
    P.W. Bridgman, Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci. 79, 167 (1952)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    P.W. Bridgman, Collected Experimental Papers, vol. I–VII, (Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1964)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    P.W. Bridgman, The Physics of High Pressure, (G. Bell and Sons, Ltd., London, 1931) (reprinted by Dover Publications, 1970)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    T. Suski, W. Paul (eds.), in High Pressure in Semiconductor Physics. Semiconductors and Semimetals, vol. 54 and 55 (Academic, New York, 1998)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    I.L. Spain, J. Paauwe, High Pressure Technology: Volume 1: Equipment Design, Materials, and Properties (CRC Press, London, 1977)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    W.F. Sherman, Experimental Techniques in High Pressure Research (Wiley, New York, 1988)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    P. Yu, Phys. Stat. Sol. (b) 248, 1077 (2011)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    O. Madelung (ed.) Data in Science and Technology, Semiconductors Group-IV Elements and III-V Compounds, (Springer, Berlin, 1991)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    I. Vurgaftman, J.R. Meyer, L.R. Ram-Mohan, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 5815 (2001)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    O. Madelung, Semiconductors: Data Handbook (Springer, Heidelberg, 2004)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    W. Paul, J. Appl. Phys. 32, 2082 (1961)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    H. Ehrenreich, Phys. Rev. 120, 1951 (1960)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    B.K. Ridley, T.B. Watkins, Proc. Phys. Soc. 78, 293 (1961)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    J.B. Gunn, Solid State Commun. 1, 88 (1963)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    H. Kroemer, Proc. IEEE 52, 1736 (1964)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    A.R. Hutson, A. Jayaraman, A.G. Chynoweth, A.S. Coriell, W.L. Feldman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 14, 639 (1965)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    P.J. Vinson, C. Pickering, A.R. Adams, W. Fawcett, G.D. Pitt, in Proceeding of the 13th International Conference on Physics of Semiconductors, ed. by F.G. Fumi (Rome, Italy, 1976) p. 1243Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    A.R. Adams, P.J. Vinson, C. Pickering, G.D. Pitt, W. Fawcett, Electron Lett. 13, 46 (1977)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    C. Pickering, A.R. Adams, J. Phys. C 10, 3115 (1977)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    D.E. Aspnes, Phys. Rev. B 14, 5331 (1976)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    J.W. Allen, M. Shyam, Y.S. Chen, G.L. Pearson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 7, 78 (1965)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    C. Pickering, A.R. Adams, G.D. Pitt, Solid State Commun. 16, 1359 (1975)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    G.D. Pitt, J. Phys. E 1, 915 (1968)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    A. El-Sabbahy, A.R. Adams, M.L. Young, Solid State Electron. 21, 83 (1978)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    J.D. Barnett, S. Block, G.J. Piermarini, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 44, 1 (1973)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    K. Syassen, High Pressure Res. 28, 75 (2008)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    R.J. Warburton, R.J. Nicholas, N.J. Mason, P.J. Walker, A.D. Prins, D.J. Dunstan, Phys. Rev. 543, 4994 (1991)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    C.G. Van de Walle, Phys. Rev. B 39, 1871 (1989)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    D.J. Wolford, T.F. Keuch, J.A. Bradley, M.A. Gell, D. Ninno, M. Jaros, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B4, 1043 (1986)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    T. Suski, W. Paul (eds.), in High Pressure in Semiconductor Physics. Semiconductors and Semimetals, vol. 54 (Academic, New York, 1998), pp. 25 and 334Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    J.D. Lambkin, A.R. Adams, D.J. Dunstan, P. Dawson, C.T. Foxon, Phys. Rev. B 39, 5546 (1989)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    J.D. Lambkin, D.J. Dunstan, E.P. O’Reilly, B.R. Butler, J. Cryst. Growth 93, 323 (1988)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    M.F. Whitaker, D.J. Dunstan, M. Missous, L. Gonzalez, Phys. Stat. Sol. (b) 198, 349 (1996)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    A.T. Meney, A.D. Prins, A.F. Phillips, J.L. Sly, E.P. O’Reilly, D.J. Dunstan, A.R. Adams, A. Valster, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. Elect. 1(2), 697 (1995)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    D. Patel, C.S. Menoni, H. Temkin, R.A. Logan, D. Coblenz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2459 (1993)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    A. Jayaraman, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 1013 (1986)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    D.J. Dunstan, I.L. Spain, J. Phys. E: Sci. Instrum. 22, 923 (1989)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    M.I. Eremets, High Pressure Experimental Methods (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1987)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    E.O. Kane, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 1, 249 (1957)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    L.G Shantharama, A.R. Adams, C.N. Ahmad, R.J. Nicholas, J. Phys. C: Solid State Phys. 17, 4429 (1984)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    J. Endicott, A. Patanè, D. Maude, L. Eaves, M. Hopkinson, G. Hill, Phys. Rev. B 72, 041306(R) (2005)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    G. Pettinari, A. Polimeni, F. Masia, R. Trotta, M. Felici, M. Capizzi, T. Niebling, W. Stolz, P.J. Klar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 146402 (2007)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    A. Polimeni, G. Pettinari, R. Trotta, F. Masia, M. Felici, M. Capizzi, A. Lindsay, E.P. O’Reilly, T. Niebling, W. Stolz, P.J. Klar, F. Martelli, S. Rubini, Phys. Stat. Sol. (a) 205, 107 (2008)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    D. Lancefield, A.R. Adams, M.A. Fisher, J. Appl. Phys. 62, 2343 (1987)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    P.M. Mooney, J. Appl. Phys. 67, R1 (1990)Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    M. Mizuta, M. Tachikawa, H. Kukimoto, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 24, L143 (1985)Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    J.A. Wolk, W. Walukiewicz, M.L.W. Thewalt, E.E. Haller, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3619 (1992)Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Y. Seki, H. Watanabe, J. Matsui, J. Appl. Phys. 49, 822 (1978)Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    A.S. Jordan, A.R. Vonneida, R. Caruso, J. Cryst. Growth 70, 555 (1984)Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    M.G. Brik, A. Kaminska, A. Suchocki, J. Appl. Phys. 108, 103520 (2010)Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    A. Kaminska, A. Kozanecki, S. Trushkin, A. Suchocki, Phys. Rev. B 81, 165209 (2010)Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    H.P. Hjalmarson, P. Vogl, D.J. Wolford, J.D. Dow, Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 810 (1980)Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    X. Liu, M.-E. Pistol, L. Samuelson, S. Schwetlick, W. Seifert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1451 (1990)Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    W. Shan, W. Walukiewicz, J.W. Ager, E.E. Haller, J.F. Geisz, D.J. Friedman, J.M. Olson, S.R. Kurtz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1221 (1999)Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    J. Wu, W Shan, W Walukiewicz, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 17, 860 (2002)Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    J.M. Besson, J.P. Itié, A. Polian, G. Weill, J.L. Mansot, J. Gonzalez Phys. Rev. B 44, 4214 (1991)Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    M.F. Whitaker, S.J. Webb, D.J. Dunstan, J. Phys. Condens. Mater. 10, 8611 (1998)Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    A. Mujica, A. Rubio, A. Munoz, R.J. Needs, Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 863 (2003)Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    C.S. Menoni, I.L. Spain, Phys. Rev. B 35, 7520 (1987)Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    R.J. Nelmes, M.I. McMahon, N.G. Wright, D.R. Allan, H. Liu, J.S. Loveday, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 3668 (1997)Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    C.M. Lin, H.S. Sheu, M.H. Tsai, B.R. Wu, S.R. Jian, Solid State Commun. 149, 136 (2009)Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    M.P. Jackson, M.P. Halsall, M. Güngerich, P.J. Klar, W. Heimbrodt, J.F. Geisz, Phys. Stat. Sol. (b) 244, 336 (2007)Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    D.N. Bose, B. Seishu, G. Parthasarsthy, E.S.R. Gopal, Proc. R. Soc. London. Ser. A, Math. Phys. Sci. 405 (1829), 345 (1986)Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    S.W. Tozer, D.J. Wolford, J.A. Bradley, D. Bour, G.B. Stringfellow, in Proceedings of the 19th ICPS, Poland, 1988, p. 881Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    S.W. Tozer, D.J. Wolford, J.A. Bradley, D. Bour, J. Electron. Mater. S35 (1988)Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    B.A. Weinstein, S.K. Hark, R.D. Burnham, R.M. Martin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 781 (1987)Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    D.J. Dunstan, A.D. Prins, B. Gil, J.P. Faurie, Phys. Rev. B 44, 4017 (1991)Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    V. Latussek, C.R. Becker, G. Landwehr, R. Bini, L. Ulivi, Phys. Rev. B 71, 125305 (2005)Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    C. Burda, X. Chen, R. Narayanan, M.A. El-Sayed, Chem. Rev. 105, 1025 (2005)Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    B.A. Weinstein, Phys. Stat. Sol. (b) 244, 368 (2007)Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    S.H. Tolbert, A.P. Alivisatos, Science 265, 373 (1994)Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    S.H. Tolbert, A.B. Herhold, L.E. Brus, A.P. Alivisatos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4384 (1996)Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    H. Wang, J.F. Liu, Y. He, Y. Wang, W. Chen, J. Z. Jiang, J. Staun Olsen, L. Gerward, J. Phys.: Condens. Mater 19, 156217 (2007)Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    J.Z. Jiang, J. Staun Olsen, L. Gerward, S. Steenstrup, High Pressure Res. 22, 395 (2002)Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    C.J. Lee, A. Mizel, U. Banin, M.L. Cohen, A.P. Alivisatos, J. Chem. Phys. 113, 2016 (2000)Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    C.S. Menoni, L. Miao, D. Patel, O.I. Mic’ic’, A.J. Nozik, Phys. Rev. B 84, 4168 (2000)Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    J.G. Díaz, G.W. Bryant, W. Jaskólski, M. Zieliski, Phys. Rev. B 75, 245433 (2007)Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Z. Zong, Y. Ma, T. Hu, G. Cui, Q. Cui, M. Zhang, G. Zou, Solid State Commun. 151, 607 (2011)Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    K.C. Heasman, PhD thesis, University of Surrey, 1985Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    S.J. Sweeney, A.F. Phillips, A.R. Adams, E.P. O’Reilly, P.J.A. Thijs, IEEE Phot. Tech. Lett. 10, 1076 (1998)Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    A.F. Phillips, S.J. Sweeney, A.R. Adams, P.J.A. Thijs, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. Elect. 5, 401 (1999)Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    S.J. Sweeney, G. Knowles, T.E. Sale, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 865 (2001)Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    N.F. Masse, E. Homeyer, I.P. Marko, A.R. Adams, S.J. Sweeney, O. Dehaese, R. Piron, F. Grillot, S. Loualiche, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 131113 (2007)Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    D. Langer, D.M. Warschauer, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 32, 32 (1961)Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    R. Dingle, W. Wiegmann, C.H. Henry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 33, 827 (1974)Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    J.F. Feinlab, S. Groves, W. Paul, R. Zallen, Phys. Rev. 131, 2070 (1963)Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    A.R. Adams, Electron. Lett. 22(5), 249 (1986)Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    E. Yablonovitch, E.O. Kane, J. Lightwave Technol. T-4(5), 504 (1986)Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    T. Suski, W. Paul (eds.), in High Pressure in Semiconductor Physics. Semiconductors and Semimetals, vol. 55 (Academic, New York, 1998), p. 311Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    S.J. Sweeney, G. Knowles, T.E. Sale, A.R. Adams, Phys. Stat. Sol. (b) 223, 567 (2001)Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    S.J. Sweeney, A.R. Adams, M. Silver, E.P. O’Reilly, J.R. Watling, A.B. Walker, P.J.A. Thijs, Phys. Stat. Sol. (b) 211, 525 (1999)Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    J. Faist, F. Capasso, D.L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A.L. Hutchinson, A.Y. Cho, Science 264 (5158), 553 (1994)Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    I.P. Marko, A.R. Adams, S.J. Sweeney, R. Teissier, A.N. Baranov, S. Tomic, Phys. Stat. Sol. (b) 246, 512 (2009)Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    O. Cathabard, R. Teissier, J. Devenson, J.C. Moreno, A.N. Baranov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 141110 (2010)Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    S.M. Sze, G. Gibbons, Appl. Phys. Lett. 8, 111 (1966)Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    J. Allam, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36, 1529 (1997)Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    J. Allam, A.R. Adams, M.A. Pate, J.S. Roberts, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 22, 3304 (1995)Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    D.J. Dunstan, I.L. Spain, J. Phys. E: Sci. Instrum. 22, 913 (1989)Google Scholar
  99. 99. see publications list or for example: P. Adamiec, A. Salhi, R. Bohdan, A. Bercha, F. Dybala, W. Trzeciakowski, Y. Rouillard, A. Joullié, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4292 (2004)Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    A.D. Prins, A.R. Adams, S.J. Sweeney, to be publishedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Advanced Technology InstituteUniversity of SurreySurreyUK

Personalised recommendations