Optical Modulation Spectroscopy

  • Robert KudrawiecEmail author
  • Jan Misiewicz
Part of the Springer Series in Materials Science book series (SSMATERIALS, volume 150)


This chapter describes the principles of optical modulation spectroscopy. Special attention is focused on photo- and contactless electro-reflectance techniques, which are nondestructive for samples, and are widely applied to study the band structure of various semiconductor materials and low-dimensional heterostructures. For these methods, experimental setups are described and theoretical approaches to analyze the experimental data are discussed. In addition, examples of the application of photo- and contactless electro-reflectance spectroscopies to study optical transitions in III–V(-N) bulk-like epilayers, quantum wells, quantum dots, and device structures are presented.


Quantum Well Photoluminescence Signal Homoepitaxial Layer Keldysh Oscillation Semitransparent Electrode 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors acknowledge many colleagues (Alfred Forchel from Wurzburg University, James Harris from Stanford University, Klaus Ploog from Paul-Drude-Institut für Festkörperelektronik, Czeslaw Skierbiszewski from UNIPRESS, Robert Dwilinski from AMMONO company, Mariusz Rudzinski from ITME, and their coworkers) for delivering samples for PR and CER studies as well as the COST Action MP0805 and the MNiSW grant related to this action for financial support.


  1. 1.
    M. Cardona, Modulation Spectroscopy, (Academic, New York, 1969)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    O.J. Glembocki, B.V. Shanabrook, in Photoreflectance Spectroscopy of Microstructures, ed. by D.G. Seiler, C.L. Littler Semiconductors and Semimetals, vol 36, p. 221 (Academic, New York, 1992)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    F.H. Pollak, in Modulation Spectroscopy of Semiconductors and Semiconductor Microstructures, ed. by M. Balkanski, Handbook on Semiconductors, vol 2, p. 527 (Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, 1994)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    J. Misiewicz, P. Sitarek, G. Sek, R. Kudrawiec, Mater. Sci. 21, 264 (2003)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    R. Kudrawiec, J. Misiewicz, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 096103 (2009)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    R. Kudrawiec, M. Syperek, M. Motyka, J. Misiewicz, R. Paszkiewicz, B. Paszkiewicz, M. Tlaczala, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 013501 (2006)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    R. Kudrawiec, M. Gladysiewicz, J. Misiewicz, H.B. Yuen, S.R. Bank, M.A. Wistey, H.P. Bae, J.S. Harris Jr, Phys. Rev. B 73, 245413 (2006)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    R. Kudrawiec, M. Motyka, J. Misiewicz, A. Somers, R. Schwertberger, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, A. Sauerwald, T. Kümmell, G. Bacher, J. Appl. Phys. 101, 013507 (2007)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    R. Kudrawiec, M. Motyka, J. Misiewicz, M. Hummer, K. Rossner, T. Lehnhardt, M. Muller, A. Forchel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 041910 (2008)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    R. Kudrawiec, J. Misiewicz, M. Rudzinski, M. Zajac, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 061910 (2008)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    R. Kudrawiec, J. Misiewicz, J. Phys.: Confer. Ser. 146, 012029 (2009)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    R. Kudrawiec, R. Kucharski, M. Rudzinski, M. Zajac, J. Misiewicz, W. Strupinski, R. Doradzinski, R. Dwilinski, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 28, L18 (2010)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    R. Kudrawiec, Phys. Stat. Sol. (b) 247, 1616 (2010)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    R. Kudrawiec, A. Khachapuridze, G. Cywinski, T. Suski, J. Misiewicz, Phys. Stat. Sol. (a) 206, 847 (2009)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    P.J. Klar, C.M. Townsley, D. Wolverson, J.J. Davies, D.E. Ashenford, B. Lunn, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 10, 1568 (1995)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    M. Motyka, G. Sek, R. Kudrawiec, J. Misiewicz, L.H. Li, A. Fiore, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 073502 (2006)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    R. Kudrawiec, M. Rudzinski, J. Serafinczuk, M. Zajac, J. Misiewicz, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 093541 (2009)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    T.J.C. Hosea, M. Merrick, B.N. Murdin, Phys. Stat. Sol. A 202, 1233 (2005)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    J. Shao, W. Lu, F. Yue, X. Lu, W. Huang, Z. Li, S. Guo, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 013111 (2007)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    M. Motyka, G. Sek, J. Misiewicz, A. Bauer, M. Dallner, S. Hofling, A. Forchel, Appl. Phys. Express 2, 126505 (2009)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    D.E. Aspnes, Surf. Sci. 37, 418 (1973)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    D.E. Aspnes, A.A. Studna, Phys. Rev. B 7, 4605 (1973)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    D.E. Aspnes, Phys. Rev. B10, 4228 (1974)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    D.E. Aspnes, in Handbook on Semiconductors, vol. 2, ed. by M. Balkanski (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1980), p. 109Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    B.V. Shanabrook, O.J. Glembocki, W.T. Beard, Phys. Rev. B35, 2540 (1987)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    O.J. Glembocki, Proc. SPIE Proc. 1286, 2 (1990)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    H. Shen, F.H. Pollak, Phys. Rev. B42, 7097 (1990)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Y.S. Huang, H. Qiang, F.H. Pollak, J. Lee, B. Elman, J. Appl. Phys. 70, 3808 (1991)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    T.J.C. Hosea, Phys. Stat. Sol. (b) 182, K43 (1994)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    K. Jezierski, P. Markiewicz, J. Misiewicz, M. Panek, B. Sciana, T. Korbutowicz, M. Tlaczala, J. Appl. Phys. 77, 4139 (1995)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    R. Kudrawiec, M. Siekacz, M. Krysko, G. Cywinski, J. Misiewicz, C. Skierbiszewski, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 113517 (2009)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    R. Kudrawiec, H.B. Yuen, M. Motyka, M. Gladysiewicz, J. Misiewicz, S.R. Bank, H.P. Bae, M.A. Wistey, J.S. Harris, J. Appl. Phys. 101, 013504 (2007)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    R. Kudrawiec, M. Gladysiewicz, J. Misiewicz, F. Ishikawa, K.H. Ploog, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 041916 (2007)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    R. Kudrawiec, M. Motyka, M. Gladysiewicz, J. Misiewicz, J.A. Gupta, G.C. Aers, Solid State Commun. 138, 365 (2006)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    R. Kudrawiec, P. Podemski, M. Motyka, J. Misiewicz, J. Serafinczuk, A. Somers, J.P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, Superlatt. Microstruct. 46, 425 (2009)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    R. Kudrawiec, M. Motyka, J. Misiewicz, A. Somers, R. Schwertberger, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, A. Sauerwald, T. Kümmell, G. Bacher, J. Appl. Phys. 101, 013507 (2007)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    G. Sek, R. Kudrawiec, M. Motyka, P. Poloczek, W. Rudno-Rudzinski, P. Podemski, J. Misiewicz, Phys. Stat. Sol. (a) 204, 400 (2007)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    M. Motyka, R. Kudrawiec, G. Sek, J. Misiewicz, I.L. Krestnikov, S. Mikhrin, A. Kovsh, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 21, 1402 (2006)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    M. Motyka, R. Kudrawiec, G. Sek, J. Misiewicz, D. Bisping, B. Marquardt, A. Forchel, M. Fischer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 221112 (2007)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    M. Motyka, W. Rudno-Rudzinski, G. Sek, R. Kudrawiec, J. Misiewicz, A. Komers, R. Schwertberger, J.P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, Phys. Stat. Sol. (c) 4, 350 (2007)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    A. Podhorodecki, J. Andrzejewski, R. Kudrawiec, J. Misiewicz, J. Wojcik, B.J. Robinson, T. Roschuk, D.A. Thompson, P. Mascher, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 013111 (2006)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    R. Kudrawiec, B. Paszkiewicz, M. Motyka, J. Misiewicz, J. Derluyn, A. Lorenz, K. Cheng, J. Das, M. Germain, J. Appl. Phys. 104, 096108 (2008)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    M. Munoz, S. Guo, X. Zhou, M.C. Tamargo, Y.S. Huang, C. Trallero-Giner, A.H. Rodriguez, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4399 (2003)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    R. Kudrawiec, J. Misiewicz, Q. Zhuang, A.M.R. Godenir, A. Krier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 151902 (2009)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    J.D. Wu, Y.S. Huang, B.S. Li, A. Shen, M.C. Tamargo, K.K. Tiong, J. Appl. Phys. 108, 123105 (2010)Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    E. Cánovas, D. Fuertes Marrón, A. Martí, A. Luque, A.W. Bett, F. Dimroth, S.P. Philipps, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 203504 (2010)Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    W. Shan, W. Walukiewicz, J.W. Ager III, E.E. Haller, J.F. Geisz, D.J. Friedman, J.M. Olson, S.R. Kurtz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1221 (1999)Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    W. Rudno-Rudzinski, G. Sek, K. Ryczko, R. Kudrawiec, J. Misiewicz, A. Somers, R. Schwertberger, J.P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 101904 (2005)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of PhysicsWrocław University of TechnologyWrocławPoland

Personalised recommendations