Surface Studies by Low-Energy Electron Diffraction and Reflection High-Energy-Electron Diffraction

  • P. LaukkanenEmail author
  • J. Sadowski
  • M. Guina
Part of the Springer Series in Materials Science book series (SSMATERIALS, volume 150)


In this chapter, we present the basic concepts of the low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) and reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) experiments. The main goal is to provide an overview of the exploitation of these instrumental methods for analyzing the surfaces of technologically important III–V compound semiconductors. In particular, the interpretation of LEED and RHEED patterns is discussed for the most representative reconstructions of GaAs(100), GaInAsN(100), and Bi-stabilized III–V(100) surfaces. Other application examples concern the use of RHEED for optimizing the growth conditions and growth rates used in molecular beam epitaxy of III–V device heterostructures.


Substrate Temperature Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Reciprocal Lattice Growth Front RHEED Pattern 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Dr. Antti Tukiainen, Arto Aho, Ville-Markus Korpijärvi, and Janne Puustinen from the Optoelectronics Research Centre, Tampere University of Technology are gratefully acknowleged for fabricating the InGaAsN structures and for their help in performing some of the RHEED experiments presented in this chapter. We would like to thank Emeritus Prof. Markus Pessa for useful discussions. We thank Prof. Changsi Peng (at present with the Soochow University, China) and Dr. Janne Pakarinen (at present with the VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland) for the ideas and experiments concerning the GaAs/AlAs studies. Also we would like to thank Dr. Mikhail Kuzmin (at present with the Ioffe Institute, Russia) for helpful discussion regarding LEED.


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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Physics and AstronomyUniversity of TurkuTurkuFinland
  2. 2.Optoelectronics Research CentreTampere University of TechnologyTampereFinland
  3. 3.MAX-labLund UniversityLundSweden

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