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A Half-Century Adventure in the Dynamics of Living Systems

  • Michel ThellierEmail author
Part of the Progress in Botany book series (BOTANY, volume 73)

Abstract

In response to the question “What is life”, molecular biology has provided knowledge concerning the structure and function of the constituents of living systems. However, there still remains the point about understanding the dynamics of the processes involved in the functioning of the system. In our contribution to this quest, we began by some methodological improvements (especially concerning stable as well as radioactive isotopic tracers, ionic interactions and electrode measurements) and their possible applications to scientific or practical problems. Enzymatic reactions, fluxes of solutes and signalling processes play a crucial role in the dynamics of living systems. We have studied several non-usual cases of enzyme kinetics, particularly the functioning of those proteins that assemble when participating in a task and disassemble when the task is over (functioning-dependent structures or FDSs), and we have found that these FDSs could induce original regulatory properties in metabolic pathways. By studying fluxes of solutes through artificial (enzyme-grafted gel slabs) or real (frog skin) barriers, we have compared apparent kinetic parameters of the system with the real molecular parameters, and we have shown that increasing the complexity of a system may permit to evaluate parameters of the system that cannot be obtained using a conventional, reductionist approach. Concerning the transport of solutes between cells and their external medium, we have proposed to substitute a formalism derived from non-equilibrium thermodynamics for the classical combination of rectangular hyperbolas; in this interpretation, the important parameter is equivalent to a conductance; moreover we introduce a “symmetry-criterion” that is especially well adapted to discriminate active from passive exchanges between cells and exterior (while the Ussing’s flux ratio equation remains the easiest way to discriminate active from passive exchanges through an epithelium). Plants are sensitive to a number of stimuli, biotic or non-biotic, traumatic or non-traumatic. Simplified systems (such as foliar discs or cell suspension cultures) have permitted us to study some cell responses to stimuli. With entire plants, we show that migration, storage and recall of information can also take place, and that a plant can recall stored information several times. From all that, we come to the conclusion that an important characteristic of living beings is that not only the processes within them are dynamic but that even their structure is dynamic for a part.

Keywords

Active vs. passive transports Enzyme-grafted gel slabs Enzyme kinetics Flux-ration equation Functioning-dependent structures Information recall Information storage Isotopic tracers Plants Solute fluxes Stable isotopes Symmetry-criterion 

Abbreviations and Symbols

ACC

1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid

FDS

Functioning-dependent structure

MAAC

Malonyl-1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid

M–M

Michaelis–Menten

NCR

Neutron capture radiography

RCL function

The function enabling plants to recall stored information

SIMS

Secondary ion mass spectrometry

SPICE

Simulation programme with integrated circuit emphasis

STO function

The function permitting plants to store morphogenetic information

Notes

Acknowledgement

I am especially indebted to Vic Norris for his critical reading and advice in the preparation of this text.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratoire AMMIS, CNRS (DYCOEC: GDR 2984)Faculté des Sciences de l’Université de RouenMont-Saint-Aignan CedexFrance

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