Probabilistic Action and Deontic Logic
Deontic logic aims at formally modeling the reasoning with norm-related modalities. Von Wright recognized that the obligation modality bears a resemblance to modal necessity and the permission modality to modal possibility, which resulted in his Standard Deontic Logic . SDL is the modal logic KD. Since its conception, SDL has drawn a lot of criticism: e.g., Chisholm  argued that it was unfit to represent certain types of conditional obligation, and Makinson  and van der Torre  emphasized that deontic logic is much more naturally studied as a process of iterative detachment relative to explicitly represented normative systems; a view that does not fit well with the modal logic modeling proposed by Von Wright.
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