Kinematic Analysis of Remote Target Pointing Hand Movements in a 3D Environment

  • Yung-Hui Lee
  • Shu-Kai Wu
Part of the Communications in Computer and Information Science book series (CCIS, volume 174)


The study investigates kinematics of target pointing hand movements in a free-hand, touchless, 3D environment. Consistent with Fitts’ original information processing model, target pointing hand movement time in a 3D space increased with an increase of distance, and increased with a decrease of target size. The relative primary submovement movement time (% of total movement time) for target with depth (67.24%) was higher than that for targets without depth (64.49%). Pointing targets in the upper half of the reference framework required a lifting up of the arm to work against the gravity, and thus cost more than those in the lower half. For targets with depth, they required an even elevated upper-arm, thus result a longer “primary submovement time”, a decreased “peak velocity”, and a decreased relative time to peak velocity.


Target pointing hand movement 3D depth perception hand/arm kinematics 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yung-Hui Lee
    • 1
  • Shu-Kai Wu
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Industrial ManagementNational Taiwan University of Science and TechnologyTaipeiTaiwan, ROC

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