Head-Free, Remote Eye-Gaze Detection System with Easy Calibration Using Stereo-Calibrated Two Video Cameras

  • Yoshinobu Ebisawa
  • Kazuki Abo
  • Kiyotaka Fukumoto
Part of the Communications in Computer and Information Science book series (CCIS, volume 174)


The video-based, head-free, remote eye-gaze detection system based on detection of the pupil and the corneal reflection was developed using stereocalibrated two cameras. The gaze detection theory assumed the linear relationship; θ = k|r′|. Here, θ is the angle between the line of sight and the line connecting between the pupil and the camera, and |r’| indicates the size of the corneal reflection - pupil center vector. Three novel easy calibration methods were proposed; ‘automatic’, ‘one-point’, and ‘two-point’. In the ‘automatic’, the user does not have to fixate the specific location in the PC screen. In the ‘one-point’, the angular difference between the optical and visual axes of the eye was determined and used for compensation. The ‘two-point’ was proposed to compensate the nonlinear relationship between |r’| and θ, which occurs when θ is large. The precision of gaze detection was compared among the three methods using the developed gaze detection system.


eye-gaze detection pupil corneal reflection user calibration head-free infant 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Guestrin, E.D., Eizenman, M.: General theory of Remove Gaze Estimation Using the Pupil Center and Corneal Reflections. IEEE Trans. on Bioml. Eng. 53(6), 1124–1133 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Zhu, Z., Ji, Q.: Novel Eye Gaze Tracking Techniques under Natural Head Movement. IEEE Trans. on Bioml. Eng. 54(12), 2246–2260 (2007)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Tobii Technology,
  4. 4.
    Eye Tech Digital Systems,
  5. 5.
    Kondou, Y., Ebisawa, Y.: Easy Eye-Gaze Calibration using a Moving Visual Target in the Head-Free Remote Eye-Gaze Detection System. In: Proc. of VECIMS 2008, pp. 145–150 (2008)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Jones, W., Carr, K., Klin, A.: Absence of Preferential Looking to the Eyes of Approaching Adults Predicts level of Social Disability in 2-Year-Olds Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry 65(8), 946–954 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yoshinobu Ebisawa
    • 1
  • Kazuki Abo
    • 1
  • Kiyotaka Fukumoto
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of EngineeringShizuoka UniversityHamamatsuJapan

Personalised recommendations