Why Can’t a Virtual Character Be More Like a Human: A Mixed-Initiative Approach to Believable Agents

  • Jichen Zhu
  • J. Michael Moshell
  • Santiago Ontañón
  • Elena Erbiceanu
  • Charles E. Hughes
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 6774)


Believable agents have applications in a wide range of human computer interaction-related domains, such as education, training, arts and entertainment. Autonomous characters that behave in a believable manner have the potential to maintain human users’ suspense of disbelief and fully engage them in the experience. However, how to construct believable agents, especially in a generalizable and cost effective way, is still an open problem. This paper compares the two common approaches for constructing believable agents — human-driven and artificial intelligence-driven interactive characters — and proposes a mixed-initiative approach in the domain of interactive training systems. Our goal is to provide the user with engaging and effective educational experiences through their interaction with our system.


Mixed-initiative system character believability interactive storytelling artificial intelligence interactive virtual environment 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jichen Zhu
    • 1
  • J. Michael Moshell
    • 1
  • Santiago Ontañón
    • 2
  • Elena Erbiceanu
    • 1
  • Charles E. Hughes
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Central FloridaUSA
  2. 2.Artificial Intelligence Research Institute (IIIA-CSIC)Spain

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