An Indirect Measure of the Implicit Level of Presence in Virtual Environments

  • Steven Nunnally
  • Durell Bouchard
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 6773)


Virtual Environments (VEs) are a common occurrence for many computer users. Considering their spreading usage and speedy development it is ever more important to develop methods that capture and measure key aspects of a VE, like presence. One of the main problems with measuring the level of presence in VEs is that the users may not be consciously aware of its affect. This is a problem especially for direct measures that rely on questionnaires and only measure the perceived level of presence explicitly. In this paper we develop and validate an indirect measure for the implicit level of presence of users, based on the physical reaction of users to events in the VE. The addition of an implicit measure will enable us to evaluate and compare VEs more effectively, especially with regard to their main function as immersive environments. Our approach is practical, cost-effective and delivers reliable results.


Virtual Environments Presence Indirect Implicit Measure 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Freeman, J., Avons, S.E., et al.: Effect of Stereoscopic Presentation, Image Motion, and Screen Size on Subjective and Objective Corroborative Measures of Presence. Presence 10(3), 298–311 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Freeman, J., Avons, S.E., et al.: Using Behavioural Realism to Estimate Presence: A Study of the Utility of Postural Responses to Motion-Stimuli. Presence 9(2), 149–164 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hofmann, W., Gawronski, B., Gschwendner, T., Le, H., Schmitt, M.: A Meta-Analysis on the Correlations Between the Implicit Association Test and Explicit Self-Report Measures. University of Trier, Germany (2004) (unpublished manuscript)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    De Houwer, J.: What Are Implicit Measures and Why Are We Using Them. In: The Handbook of Implicit Cognition and Addiction, pp. 11–28. Sage Publishers, Thousand Oaks (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Tan, D.S., Gergle, D., et al.: Physically Large Displays Improve Performance on Spatial Tasks. ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction 13(1), 71–99 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Witmer, R.G., Singer, M.J.: Measuring Presence in Virtual Environments: A Presence Questionnaire. Presence 7(3), 225–240 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Steven Nunnally
    • 1
  • Durell Bouchard
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Information ScienceUniversity of PittsburghUSA
  2. 2.Department of Math, Computer Science, and PhysicsRoanoke CollegeUSA

Personalised recommendations