Olfactory Display Using Visual Feedback Based on Olfactory Sensory Map

  • Tomohiro Tanikawa
  • Aiko Nambu
  • Takuji Narumi
  • Kunihiro Nishimura
  • Michitaka Hirose
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 6773)


Olfactory sensation is based on chemical signals whereas the visual sensation and auditory sensation are based on physical signals. Therefore olfactory displays which exist now can only present the set of scents which was prepared beforehand because a set of “primary odors" has not been found. In our study, we focus on development of an olfactory display using cross modality which can represent more patterns of scents than the patterns of scents prepared. We construct olfactory sensory map by asking subjects to smell various aroma chemicals and evaluate their similarity. Based on the map, we selected a few aroma chemicals and implemented a visual and olfactory display. We succeed to generate various smell feeling from only few aromas, and it is able to substitute aromas by pictures nearer aromas are drawn by pictures more strongly. Thus, we can reduce the number of aromas in olfactory displays using the olfactory map.


Olfactory display Multimodal interface Cross modality Virtual Reality 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Cain, W.S.: To know with the nose: Keys to odor identification. Science 203, 467–470 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sugiyama, H., Kanamura, S.A., Kikuchi, T.: Are olfactory images sensory in nature? Perception 35, 1699–1708 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Nakamoto, T., Otaguro, S., Kinoshita, M., Nagahama, M., Ohinishi, K., Ishida, T.: Cooking Up an Interactive Olfactory Game Display. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications 28(1), 75–78 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Yamada, T., Yokoyama, S., Tanikawa, T., Hirota, K., Hirose, M.: Wearable Olfactory Display: Using Odor in Outdoor Environment. In: Proceedings IEEE VR 2006, pp. 199–206 (2006)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Herz, R.S., von Clef, J.: The influence of verbal labeling on the perception of odors: evidence for olfactory illusion? Perception 30, 381–391 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gottfried, J., Dolan, R.: The Nose Smells What the Eye Sees: Crossmodal Visual Facilitation of Human Olfactory Perception. Neuron 39(2), 375–386 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Zellner, D.A., Kautz, M.A.: Color affects perceived odor intensity. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 16, 391–397 (1990)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Grigor, J., Van Toller, S., Behan, J., Richardson, A.: The effect of odour priming on long latency visual evoked potentials of matching and mismatching objects. Chemical Senses 24, 137–144 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sakai, N., Imada, S., Saito, S., Kobayakawa, T., Deguchi, Y.: The Effect of Visual Images on Perception of Odors. Chemical Senses 30(suppl. 1) (2005)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Nambu, A., Narumi, T., Nishimura, K., Tanikawa, T., Hirose, M.: A Study of Providing Colors to Change Olfactory Perception - Using ”flavor of color”. In: ASIAGRAPH in Tokyo 2008, vol. 2(2), pp. 265–268 (2008)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bensafi, M., Rouby, C.: Individual Differences in Odor Imaging Ability Reflect Differences in Olfactory and Emotional Perception. Chemical Senses 32, 237–244 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lawless, H.T.: Exploration of fragrance categories and ambiguous odors using multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis. Chemical Senses (1989)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Smith, T.F., Waterman, M.S.: Identification of Common Molecular Subsequences. J. Mol. Biol. 147, 195–197 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tomohiro Tanikawa
    • 1
  • Aiko Nambu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Takuji Narumi
    • 1
  • Kunihiro Nishimura
    • 1
  • Michitaka Hirose
    • 1
  1. 1.The University of TokyoTokyoJapan
  2. 2.Japan Society for the Promotion of ScienceTokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations