Appendix: Speed Effects of Lubrication
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If in a practical forming operation lubrication is applied (as is most often), speed affects may be created by the lubricant. This is caused by the fact that movement of the sheet over the tool can generate a pressure in the lubricant by hydrodynamic effects. As a result the pressurized lubricant carries part of the load thereby reducing the load on the roughness asperities. This will reduce friction. Under ideal conditions the influence of speed on friction may be presented.
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