Molecular Mechanisms of Ethanol Tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
- 1.4k Downloads
The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a superb ethanol producer, yet sensitive to ethanol at higher concentrations, especially under high gravity or very high gravity fermentation conditions. Although significant efforts have been made to study ethanol stress response in past decades, molecular mechanisms of ethanol tolerance are not well known. With developments of genome sequencing and genomic technologies, our understanding of yeast biology has been revolutionarily advanced. Additional evidence of ethanol tolerance has been discovered involving numerous genes with variety of functions, multiple loci, and complex interactions, as well as signal transduction pathways and regulatory networks. Genetic manipulation of one or a few genes is unable to achieve desirable phenotype for multiple stress tolerance. Transcription dynamics and profiling studies of key gene sets such as heat shock proteins provided new insight into tolerance mechanisms. A transient gene expression response or a stress response to ethanol does not necessarily lead to ethanol-tolerant phenotype in yeast. Reprogrammed pathways and interactions of cofactor regeneration and redox balance revealed by time-course studies suggest constitutive gene expression response is important for ethanol tolerance. Fine-tuned expression of key transcription factor genes, which regulate numerous genes associated with ethanol stress, may achieve desirable phenotype and avoid side effect to cell growth at the same time.
KeywordsPentose Phosphate Pathway Ethanol Tolerance Glycogen Metabolism Intracellular Acidification Heat Shock Element
The authors are grateful to Michael A. Cotta and Marsha Ebener for reading the manuscript. This work was supported in part by NIFA National Research Initiative Award 2006-35504-17359. Mention of trade names or commercial products in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing specific information and does not imply recommendation or endorsement by the US Department of Agriculture. USDA is an equal opportunity provider and employer.
- Bruinenberg PM, van Dijken JP, Scheffers WA (1983) A theoretical analysis of NADPH production and consumption in yeasts. J Gen Microbiol 129(4):953–964Google Scholar
- Chandler M, Stanley GA, Rogers P, Chambers P (2004) A genomic approach to defining the ethanol stress response in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Ann Microbiol 54(4):427–454Google Scholar
- Colombo S, Ma P, Cauwenberg L, Winderickx J, Crauwels M, Teunissen A, Nauwelaers D, de Winde JH, Gorwa MF, Colavizza D, Thevelein JM (1998) Involvement of distinct G-proteins, Gpa2 and Ras, in glucose- and intracellular acidification-induced cAMP signalling in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. EMBO J 17(12):3326–3341PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Harbison CT, Gordon DB, Lee TI, Rinaldi NJ, Macisaac KD, Danford TW, Hannett NM, Tagne JB, Reynolds DB, Yoo J, Jennings EG, Zeitlinger J, Pokholok DK, Kellis M, Rolfe PA, Takusagawa KT, Lander ES, Gifford DK, Fraenkel E, Young RA (2004) Transcriptional regulatory code of a eukaryotic genome. Nature 431(7004):99–104PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Liu Z, Saha BC, Slininger PJ (2008) Lignocellulosic biomass conversion to ethanol by Saccharomyces. In: Wall J, Harwood C, Demain A (eds) Bioenergy. ASM Press, Washington DC, pp 17–36Google Scholar
- Outlaw J, Collins KJ, Duffield JA (2005) Agriculture as a producer and consumer of energy. CABI Publishing, Oxfordshire/CambridgeGoogle Scholar
- Piper PW, Talreja K, Panaretou B, Moradas-Ferreira P, Byrne K, Praekelt UM, Meacock P, Récnacq M, Boucherie H (1994) Induction of major heat-shock proteins of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, including plasma membrane Hsp30, by ethanol levels above a critical threshold. Microbiology 140(11):3031–3038PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Teixeira MC, Monteiro P, Jain P, Tenreiro S, Fernandes AR, Mira NP, Alenquer M, Freitas AT, Oliveira AL, Sá-Correia I (2006) The YEASTRACT database: a tool for the analysis of transcription regulatory associations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Nucleic Acids Res 34:D446–D451PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Thevelein JM, Cauwenberg L, Colombo S, De Winde JH, Donation M, Dumortier F, Kraakman L, Lemaire K, Ma P, Nauwelaers D, Rolland F, Teunissen A, Van Dijck P, Versele M, Wera S, Winderickx J (2000) Nutrient-induced signal transduction through the protein kinase A pathway and its role in the control of metabolism, stress resistance, and growth in yeast. Enzyme Microb Technol 26(9–10):819–825PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Vertes A, Qureshi N, Yukawa H, Blaschek H (2009) Biomass to biofuels. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, West SussexGoogle Scholar