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Reinforced Elastomers: Interphase Modification and Compatibilization in Rubber-Based Nanocomposites

  • Petroula A. TarantiliEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Advanced Structured Materials book series (STRUCTMAT, volume 12)

Abstract

An extended review is presented on the structure and properties of filler-matrix interface in reinforced elastomeric materials, since the above characteristics are critical for the overall performance of the related products. The current trends for interphase modification in rubber systems containing various fillers, such as Carbon black, Silica, Calcium Carbonate, Clays with emphasis on clay nanofillers, as well as Graphene is discussed. The use of fibrilar reinforcements is also reported, including traditional materials, such as Natural fibres, as well as Aramids and Carbon Nanotubes. On the other hand, the concept of hybrid composites, i.e., those composed of a mixture of matrices or reinforcements, further enhances the versatility of those materials, since it provides new possibilities of extending the area of rubber applications. In fact, the above products combine the property improvement attributed to each one of the system’s components and, moreover, they can usually take advantage of their synergistic action. In the same context the role of some other additives, necessary to adjust mechanical properties (e.g. plasticizers) or to promote phase miscibility in complex systems, such as compatibilizers, was investigated. The vulcanization of elastomeric materials is a critical step, with high impact on the properties of final products. In fact, the extent of this reaction, the cross-links density along with the other network parameters, are some important factors controlling the overall behavior of the vulcanized rubber and, therefore, monitoring, control, and modeling of rubber vulcanization are also examined in this work. The above review showed that the main reason for reinforcing rubbers is to improve their mechanical and thermal properties, as well as to reduce cost and sometimes the weight of a construction. It seemed that recent advances in nanoparticles have attracted much attention in manufacturing of rubber nanocomposites, because of the small size of filler and the corresponding increase in the surface area, which leads to the required mechanical properties at low filler loading. Carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoparticles are promising materials, offering good electrical properties. Surface treatment of the filler particles with the appropriate coupling agents is often vital, in order to promote proper dispersion and adequate filler/matrix interactions. Also, efficient dispersion of the reinforcement into rubber matrices usually needs the assistance of functionalized polymers, i.e., compatibilizers. Among the different modifying agents, maleic anhydride is the most commonly used and seems to ensure best results at relatively low cost. Finally, the cross-linking parameters must be controlled for an optimal network formation. The newly developed polyblends, based on mixtures of rubbers with polyolefins, require the suitable compatibilization in order to reveal their unique properties. Nanoparticles, being very efficient reinforcing agents even at low concentrations, were also found to play the role of compatibilizer for these mixtures of immiscible polymers.

Keywords

Graphene Oxide Natural Rubber Silicone Rubber Maleic Anhydride Interfacial Adhesion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations

3-APE

3-aminopropyl-triethoxy silane

IIR

Butyl rubber

ACM

Acrylic rubber

APTES

Aminopropyltriethoxysilane

ATO

Sb doped tin dioxide

BIMMS

Brominated polyisobutylene-co-paramethylstyrene

BPDA

Benzophenone-3,3′,4,4′-tetracarboxylic dianhydride

BR

Butadiene rubber

Bt

Bentonite

C-8

Octylamine

CB

Carbon black

CNT’s

Carbon nanotubes

C-SEBS

Carboxylated SEBS

DDA

Dodecylamine

DFT

Density functional theory

DSC

Differential scanning calorimetry

EAR

Ethylene acrylate rubber

ENR

Epoxidized natural rubber

EOC

Ethylene-octene copolymer

EPDM

Ethylene-propylene-diene rubber

EPR

Ethylene-propylene rubber

EPR-g-MA

Ethylene-propylene rubber grafted with maleic anhydride

EVA

Ethyl-vinyl acetate copolymer

FGS

Functionalized graphene sheets

FKM

Fluoroelastomer

GIC

Graphite intercalated compound

GF

Glass fibres

GMA

Glycidyl methacrylate

GN

Graphite nanosheets

GO

Graphene oxide

HDPE

High density polyethylene

HDS

Hexadecyltrimethoxy-silanes

HNBR

Hydrogenated acrylonitrile butadiene rubber

HTV-SR

High temperature vulcanized silicone rubber

HXNBR

Carboxylated NBR

Ipp

Isotactic polypropylene

KF

Kenaf fibres

LB

Liquid polybutadiene

LDPE

Low-density polyethylene

MA-g-EPDM

Maleic anhydride grafted EPDM

MA-g-PB

Maleic anhydride grafted 1,2 polybutadiene

MB

Master batch

MDI

Methylene-bis-diphenyl diisocyanate

MG

Modified graphene

MH

Magnesium hydroxide

MMT

Montmorillonite

MPPB

Maleic anhydride grafted propylene-butadiene copolymer

MPTS

3-mercaptopropyltribis(triethoxysilylpropyl)tetrasulfide

MPS

γ-ethacrylopropyltriethoxysilane

MPS

γ-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxy

MRPS

γ-mercaptoproyltrimethoxy

MVMQ

Methyl vinyl silicone rubber

MWNTs

Multiwall nanotubes

NBR

Acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber

NG

Natural graphite

NR

Natural rubber

NR-g-MA

Maleic anhydride grafted natural rubber

NXT, NXT Z

3-octanoylthio-1-propyltriethoxysilane

ODA

Octadecylamine

OMEC

Online measured electrical conductance

OMMT

Organophilic montmorillonite

PMDA

Pyrromellitic dianhydride

PR

Petroleum resin

PU

Polyurethane

PUR

Polyurethane rubber

PA

Poly(amide), nylon

PB

Polybutadiene

PDMS

Poly(dimethyl siloxane)

PE-g-MA

Polyethylene grafted maleic anhydride

Phr

Parts per hundred

PPEAA

Poly(propylnene-eyhylene acrylic acid)

PP-g-MA

Polypropylene grafted maleic anhydride

PSA

Polysulfonamide

RBFMs

Rubber-based friction materials

RFL

Resorcinol fromaldehayde latex

RGO

Reduced GO

RTV

Room temperature vulcanized

RP

Red phosphorus

SACP

Surface-acetylated cellulose powder

SBR

Styrene-dutadiene rubber

SBS

Styrene-butadiene-styrene

SEBS

Styrene-ethylene- butylene- styrene

SEBS-g-MA

Styrene-ethylene- butylene- styrene grafted maleic anhydride

SEM

Scanning electron microscopy

SEP

Poly(styrene-b-ethylene-co-propylene) diblock copolymer

Si69

Bis(triethoxysilylpropyl)tetrasulfide

SRBC

Styrene rubber block copolymer blends

SWNTs

Single wall nanotubes

TEM

Transmittance electron microscopy

TEOS

Tetraethoxysilane

TESPT

1,4-phenylene diisocyanate (PPDI), methylene-bis-diphenyl

Tg

Glass transition temperature

TPNT

Thermoplastic natural rubber

ULM

Ultrasonically assisted latex mixing process

VPR

Butadiene–styrene–vinyl pyridine rubber

WHRA

White rice husk ash

XRD

X-ray diffraction

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Polymer Technology Lab., School of Chemical EngineeringNational Technical University of AthensAthensGreece

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