Exploring the Effects of Diversified Treatment Modes on Production and Reception of Grammatical Forms
The analysis of the results of the empirical investigations into the effects of reception-based as opposed to production-based pedagogic intervention concerning two separate grammatical forms presented in the foregoing chapter has not provided unambiguous evidence for the advantage of either of the modes of instruction. Having offered vital insights into the ways instruction affects the reception and production of grammatical forms, the studies gave rise to a host of questions and queries concerning a number of crucial issues, such as the degree to which individual differences impinge on experiment outcomes and the possible gains of instruction that, instead of juxtaposing input-and output-orientation, would combine the two types of pedagogic intervention to offer a viable pedagogic solution. These questions are addressed in the present chapter which reports the findings of another two research projects conducted with a view to exploring the effect of diversified treatment modes on the reception and production of reported speech and causative have. More specifically, the first of the studies concentrates on the comparison of the input-based, output-based and a combined input- and output-based types of grammar instruction. The second study contrasts reception- and production-oriented pedagogic intervention; however, this time, the main emphasis is laid on the extent to which each of the treatment modes contributes to the development of explicit and implicit knowledge. In recognition of the need to employ credible measures of these two types of representation, a separate section is also devoted to the discussion of the findings of a number of studies undertaken in order to establish reliable ways of tapping explicit and implicit knowledge.