Quantum Theory of Relaxation

  • Karl BlumEmail author
Part of the Springer Series on Atomic, Optical, and Plasma Physics book series (SSAOPP, volume 64)


Consider a system which is not closed but in continuous contact with its surroundings, exchanging energy, polarization and so forth. If initially the system is in a nonequilibrium state then—under certain conditions which will be specified below—it will at some later time go over into an equilibrium state determined by external conditions such as temperature. This gradual evolution into an equilibrium state is called a relaxation process. In the present chapter we will consider some methods for studying processes of this kind.


Density Matrix Relaxation Process Thermal Equilibrium Atomic System Reduce Density Matrix 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institut für Theoretische PhysikUniversität MünsterMünsterGermany

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