Early Warning Systems and Their Effectiveness in Asia

  • Ramesha Chandrappa
  • Sushil Gupta
  • Umesh Chandra Kulshrestha


Early warning systems allow communities to organize for and tackle the natural hazards. The efficiency of such systems depends on technology available, training of community, disaster preparedness and how corrupt a society is. The efficiency is measured in terms of lives saved and reduction in losses, which is directly related to the execution of response by the people and institutions. The indispensable components of the forecasting, warning and response system consist of a data source, communications, forecasts, decision support, notification, coordination, and responses. A flood forecast and warning programme should be designed to mitigate disaster. To achieve this, it is essential that all of the components of the system be functional.


  1. Baldwin I.G, Harman M.M.I, Neville D.A, 1994: Performance characteristics of a fish monitor for detection of toxic substances-I. Laboratory trials. Water Research 28(10), 2191±2199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Borcherding J, Volpers M, 1994: The ‘Dreissena-monitor’, first results on the application of this biological early warning system in the continuous monitoring of water quality. Water Science and Technology 29(3), 199±201.Google Scholar
  3. Femke Vos - Jose Rodriguez - Regina Below - D. Guha-Sapir, 2009: Annual Disaster Statistical Review 2009 – The numbers and trends, Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of DisastersGoogle Scholar
  4. Hellen Nyakundi, 2008: ‘An Investigation into Community and Response to Flood Risks’, ProVention/World Bank Young Researcher report, Hellen Nyakundi, Dr Isaac Mwanzo, Dr A. Yitambe and Stephen Mogere, Kenyatta University, Kenya, Community perceptions and response to flood risks in Nyando district, Western Kenya, downloaded on 21 July 2010
  5. Kramer K.J.M, Botterweg J, 1991: Aquatic biological early warning systems: an overview. In: Jeffrey, D.W., Madden, B. (Eds.), Bioindicators and Environmental Management. Academic Press, London, pp. 95±126.Google Scholar
  6. Lynam C.P, Hay S.J, Brierley A.S, 2004: Interannual variability in abundance of North Sea jellyfish and links to the North Atlantic Oscillation. Limnol. Oceanogr. 49, 637–643CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Martin V, Von Dobschuetz S, Lemenach A, Rass N, Schoustra W and Desimone L, Supplement 2007: Early Warning, Database, and Information Systems For Avian Influenza Surveillance1, Journal Of Wildlife Diseases, 43(3), Pp. S71–S76Google Scholar
  8. Millicent Eidson, Laura Kramer, Ward Stone, Yoichiro Hagiwara, Kate Schmit, 2001: The New York State West Nile Virus Dead Bird Surveillance as an Early Warning System for West Nile Virus, July–August 2001, Emerging Infectious Diseases Vol. 7, No. 4, pp 631–635 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Philippa Howell, 2003: Indigenous early warning indicators of cyclones: Potential application in coastal Bangladesh, Disaster Studies Working Paper 6, Benifield hazard Research Centre, Aon Benfield UCL Hazard. downloaded on 21 July2010
  10. Ramanathan A.S, 1987: Indian Journal of History of Science, 22(3): page 191–197Google Scholar
  11. Smith E.H, Bailey H.C, 1988: Development of a system for continuous biomonitoring of a domestic water source for early warning of contaminants. In: Gruber, D.S., Diamond, J.M. (Eds.), Automated Biomonitoring. Ellis Horwood, Chichester, pp. 182±205.Google Scholar
  12. Sluyts H, Van Hoof F, Cornet A, Paulussen J, 1996: A dynamic new alarm system for use in biological early warning systems. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 15(8), 1317±1323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. UNFCCC, 2005: Report of the Asian Regional Workshop on Adaptation. retrieved on September 30, 2010.
  14. Van Hoof F, Sluyts H, Paulussen J, Berckmans D, Bloemen H, 1994: Evaluation of a biomonitor based on the phototactic behaviour of Daphnia magna using infrared detection and digital image processing. Water Science and Technology 30(10), 79±86.Google Scholar
  15. VASAT (Virtual Academy for Semi Arid Tropics), 2010: downloaded on 22 July 2010

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ramesha Chandrappa
    • 1
  • Sushil Gupta
    • 2
  • Umesh Chandra Kulshrestha
    • 3
  1. 1.Biomedical Waste SectionKarnataka State Pollution Control BoardBangaloreIndia
  2. 2.Risk Management Solutions IndiaNoidaIndia
  3. 3.School of Environmental SciencesJawaharlal Nehru UniversityNew DehliIndia

Personalised recommendations