Impact on Biodiversity: Asian Scenario

  • Ramesha Chandrappa
  • Sushil Gupta
  • Umesh Chandra Kulshrestha
Chapter

Abstract

Biodiversity is the degree of variation of life forms in an ecosystem, biome, or entire planet. With rapid civilisation the diverse species was hunted and over exploited for food as well as recreation. Civilisation is also cause for clearing diverse fauna in many countries. Rapid environmental degradation has been the cause for extinction of many species. Natural barriers such as large rivers, seas, mountains and deserts have contributed to diversity by enabling independent evolution on both side of the barrier. On the other hand artificial barriers like international borders, roads, settlement and farm land, military activities has contributed to fragmentation of ecosystem and destruction of many species.

References

  1. Allison L. Perry, Paula J. Low, Jim R. Ellis, John D. Reynolds, 2005: Science, Vol 308, PP 1912–1915Google Scholar
  2. Andrzej Bytnerowicz, Kenji Omasa, Elena Paoletti, 2007: Integrated effects of air pollution and climate change on forests: A northern hemisphere perspective, Environmental Pollution 147, 438–445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Atkinson Angus, Volker Siegel, Evgeny Pakhomov and Peter Rothery, 2004: Long-term decline in krill stock and increase in salps within the Southern Ocean. Nature 432, 100–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ayres M.P, Lombardero, M.J, 2000: Assessing the consequences of global change for forest disturbances for herbivores and pathogens. The Total Science of the Environment 262, 263–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baker J.D, Littnan C.L, Johnston D.W, 2006: Potential effects of sea level rise on the terrestrial habitats of endangered and endemic megafauna in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Endang Species Res 2:21–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bachelet D, Neilson R.P, Hickler T, Drapek R.J, Lenihan J.M., Sykes M.T, Smith, B, Sitch S, Thonicke K, 2003: Simulating past and future dynamics of natural ecosystems in the United States. Global Biogeochemistry Cycles 17, 1045 doi: 10.1029/2001GB001508.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Balazs G.H, Chaloupka M, 2004: Thirty-year recovery trend in the once depleted Hawaiian green sea turtle stock. Biol Conserv 117:491–498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Barbraud C, Weimerskirch H, 2003: Climate and density-shape populations dynamics of a marine top predator. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 270, 2111–2116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Batjes N.H, Sombroek, W.G, 1997: Possibilities for carbon sequestration in tropical and subtropical soils. Global Climate Change Biology 3, 161–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Beaugrand G, Brander K.M, Lindley J.A, Souissi S, Reid P.C, 2003: Nature 426, 661.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Beaugrand G, Reid P.C, Ibanez F, Lindley J.A, Edwards M, 2002: Science 296, 1692.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bjork M, Short F, McLeod E, Beers S, 2008: Managing seagrasses for resilience to climate change. IUCN, GlandGoogle Scholar
  13. Both C, Bouwhuis S, Lessells C.M. & Visser M.W, 2006: Climate change and population declines in a long-distance migratory bird. Nature 441: 81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Broderick A.C, Frauenstein R, Glen F, Hays G.C and others, 2006: Are green turtles globally endangered? Glob Ecol Biogeogr 15:21–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chaloupka M.Y, Kamezaki N, Limpus C.J, 2008: Is climate change affecting the population dynamics of the endangered Pacific loggerhead sea turtle? J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 356:136–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chaloupka M.Y, Limpus C.J, 2001: Trends in the abundance of sea turtles resident in Southern Great Barrier Reef waters. Biol Conserv 102:235–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Christopher P Lynam, Stephen J Hay, Andrew S Brierley, 2004: Interannual variability in abundance of North Sea jellyfish and links to the North Atlantic Oscillation. Limnology and Oceanography 49(3), 637–643CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Craig D. Allen, Alison K. Macalady, Haroun Chenchouni, Dominique Bachelet, Nate McDowell, Michel Vennetier, Thomas Kitzberger, Andreas Rigling, David D. Breshears, E.H. (Ted) Hogg, Patrick Gonzalez, Rod Fensham, Zhen Zhang, Jorge Castro, Natalia Demidova, Jong-Hwan Lim, Gillian Allard, Steven W. Running, Akkin Semerci, Neil Cobb, 2010: A global overview of drought and heat-induced tree mortality reveals emerging climate change risks for forests, Forest Ecology and Management 259, 660–684Google Scholar
  19. Croxall J.P, Trathan P.N, Murphy E.J, 2002: Environmental change and Antarctic seabird populations. Science 297, 1510–1514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ehlers A, Worm B, Reusch T.B.H, 2008: Importance of genetic diversity in eelgrass Zostera marina for its resilience to global warming. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 355:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fish M.R, Cote I.M, Gill J.A, Jones A.P, Renshoff S, Watkinson A.R, 2005: Predicting the impact of sea-level rise on Caribbean sea turtle nesting habitat. Conserv Biol 19: 482–491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fish M.R, Cote I.M, Horrocks J.A, Mulligan B, Watkinson A.R, Jones A.P, 2008: Construction setback regulations and sea level rise: mitigating sea turtle nesting beach loss. Ocean Coast Manag 51:330–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. FitzSimmons N, Moritz C, Bowen B.W, 1999: Population identification. In: Eckert K.L, Bjorndal K.A, Abreu-Grobois F.A, Donnelly M (eds) Research and management techniques for the conservation of sea turtles. IUCN/SSC Marine Turtle Specialist Group Publication No. 4, IUCN, Gland, p 72–79Google Scholar
  24. Foley A.M, Peck S.A, Harman G.R, 2006: Effects of sand characteristics and inundation on the hatching success of loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) clutches on low-relief mangrove islands in southwest Florida. Chelonian Conserv Biol 5:32–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Frederiksen M, Wanless S, Harris M.P, Rothery P, Wilson L.J, 2004: The role of industrial fisheries and oceanographic change in the decline of North Sea blacklegged kittiwakes. Journal of Applied Ecology 41, 1129–1139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. George R, Francis A.P, Lino Grima, Henry A.R, Thomas H.W, 1985: A prospectus for the management of the Long Point ecosystem. Great Lakes Fishery Commission, Ann Arbor, Technical Report No. 43 (WGBR).Google Scholar
  27. Government of Japan, 1997: Japan’s Second National Communication under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate ChangeGoogle Scholar
  28. Graeme C. Hays, Anthony J. Richardson and Carol Robinson, 2005: Climate change and marine plankton. Trends in Ecology and Evolution Vol.20 No.6, 337–344Google Scholar
  29. Hall-Spencer J.M, Rodolfo-Metalpa R, Martin S, Ransome E and others, 2008: Volcanic carbon dioxide vents show ecosystem effects of ocean acidification. Nature 454:96–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hamann M, Limpus C.J, Read M.A, 2007: Chapter 15 Vulnerability of marine reptiles in the Great Barrier Reef to climate change. In: Johnson JE, Marshall PA (eds) Climate change and the Great Barrier Reef: a vulnerability assessment, Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority and Australia Greenhouse Office, Hobart, p 465–496Google Scholar
  31. Harley C.D.G, Hughes A.R, Hultgren K.M, Miner B.G, Sorte C.J, Thornber C.S, Rodriguez L.F, Tomanek L, Williams S.L, 2006: The impacts of climate change in coastal marine systems. Ecol Lett 9:228–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hughes L, 2000: Biological consequences of global warming: is the signal already. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 15, 56–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Jenouvrier S, Barbraud C, Cazelles B, Weimerskirch H, 2005: Modelling population dynamics of seabirds: importance of the effects of climate fluctuations on breeding proportions. OIKOS 108, 511–522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kamel S.J, Mrosovsky N, 2006: Deforestation: Risk of sex ratio distortion in hawksbill sea turtles. Ecol Appl 16:923–931CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kuiper-Linley M, Johnson C.R, Lanyon J.M, 2007: Effects of stimulated green turtle regrazing on seagrass abundance, growth and nutritional status in Moreton bay, south-east Queensland, Australia. Mar Freshw Res 58:492–503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kirschbaum M.U.F., 2000: Will changes in soil organic carbon act as a positive or negative feedback on global warming? Biogeochemistry 48, 21–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Lapointe B.E, 1999: Simultaneous top-down and bottom-up forces control macroalgal blooms on coral reefs. Limnol Oceanogr 44:1586–1592CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Lloyd A.H, Bunn A.G, 2007: Responses of the circumpolar boreal forest to 20th century climate variability. Environmental Research Letters 2, 045013, doi:10:1088/1748-9326/2/4/045013.Google Scholar
  39. Lucht W, Schaphoff S, Erbrecht T, Heyder U, Cramer W, 2006: Terrestrial vegetation redistribution and carbon balance under climate change. Carbon Balance and Management 1, 6 doi: 10.1186/1750-0680-1-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Myers Norman, Russell A. Mittermeier, Cristina G. Mittermeier, Gustavo A. B. da Fonseca & Jennifer Kent, 2000: Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature 403, 853–858CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Martin D, Tarsem Lal, Sachdev C.B, Sharma J.P, 2010: Soil organic carbon storage changes with climate change, landform and land use conditions in Garhwal hills of the Indian Himalayan mountains, Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 138, 64–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. MEA (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment), 2005: Ecosystems and human wellbeing: Synthesis. Washington DC: Island PressGoogle Scholar
  43. Miller J.D, 1997: Reproduction in sea turtles. In: Lutz PL, Musick JA (eds) The biology of sea turtles, Vol 1. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, p 51–81Google Scholar
  44. Mittermeier A Russell, Norman Myers, and Cristina Goettsch Mittermeier, 1999: Hotspots: Earth’s Biologically Richest and Most Endangered Terrestrial Ecoregions, Cemex, Conservation InternationalGoogle Scholar
  45. Moran K.L, Bjorndal K.A, 2005: Simulated green turtle grazing affects structure and productivity of seagrass pastures. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 305:235–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Moran K.L, Bjorndal K.A, 2007: Simulated green turtle grazing affects nutrient composition of the seagrass Thalassia testudinum. Mar Biol 150:1083–1092CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Naro-Maciel E, Mrosovsky N, Marcovaldi MA, 1999: Thermal profiles of sea turtle hatcheries and nesting areas at Praia do Forte, Brazil. Chelonian Conserv Biol 3:407–413Google Scholar
  48. Nevoux M, Weimerskirch H, Barbraud C, 2007: Environmental variation and experience-related differences in the demography of the long-lived blackbrowed albatross. Journal of Animal Ecology 76, 159–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Omori M and Nakano E, 2001: Jellyfish fishery in southeast Asia Hydrobiologia 451 (Dev. Hydrobiol. 155): 19–26.Google Scholar
  50. Parmesan C & Yohe G, 2003: A globally coherent fingerprint of climate change impacts across natural systems. Nature 421: 37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Pounds A.J, Bustamante M.R, Coloma L.A, Consuegra J.A, Fogden M.P.L, Foster P.N, La Marca E, Masters K.L, Merino-Viteri A, Puschendorf R, Ron S.R, Sánchez-Azofeifa G.A, Still C.J & Young B.E, 2006: Widespread amphibian extinctions from epidemic disease driven by global warming. Nature 439: 161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Roeder K.D. 1953: Insect physiology. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  53. Root T & Hughes L, 2005: Present and future phenological changes in wild plants and animals. In: Lovejoy T.E. and Hannah. L. (Eds.) Climate Change and Biodiversity, Yale University Press, New Haven & London. pp. 61.Google Scholar
  54. Sabine L Christopher, Richard A. Feely, Nicolas Gruber, Robert M. Key, Kitack Lee, John L. Bullister, Rik Wanninkhof, C. S. Wong, Douglas W. R. Wallace, Bronte Tilbrook, Frank J. Millero, Tsung-Hung Peng, Alexander Kozyr, Tsueno Ono and Aida F. Rios, 2004: The oceanic sink for anthropogenic CO2. Science 305:367–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Sandvik H, Erikstad K.E., Barbett R.T, Yoccoz N.G, 2005: The effect of climate on adult survival in five species of North Atlantic seabirds. Journal of Animal Ecology 74, 817–831.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Scholze M, Knorr W, Arnell N.W, Prentice I, 2006: A climate-change risk analysis for world ecosystems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 103, 13116–13120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Short F.T, Neckles H.A, 1999: The effects of global climate change on seagrasses. Aquat Bot 63:169–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Taylor H Arnold, Icarus Allen J & Paul A Clark 2002: Extraction of a weak climatic signal by an ecosystem. Nature 416, 629–632CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Thayer G.W, Bjorndal K.A, Ogden J.C, Williams S.L, Zieman J.C, 1984: Role of larger herbivores in sea grass communities. Estuaries 7:351–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Thomas C.D, Cameron A, Green R.E, Bakkenes M, Beaumont L.J, Collingham Y.C, Erasmus B.F.N, De Siquiera M.F, Grainger A, Hannah L, Hughes L, Huntley B, Van Jaarsveld A.S, Midgley G.F, Miles L, Ortega-Huerta M.A, Peterson A.T, Phillips O. & Williams S.E, 2004: Extinction risk from climate change. Nature 427: 145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. UNEP/CMS, 2006: Migratory Species and Climate Change: Impacts of a Changing Environment on Wild Animals Secretariat, Bonn, Germany. 68 ppGoogle Scholar
  62. Uye S & Kasuya T, 1999: Functional roles of ctenophores in the marine coastal ecosystem. In Okutani, T., S. Ohta & R. Ueshima (eds) Update Progress in Aquatic Invertebrate Zoology. Tokai University Press, Tokyo: 57–76 (in Japanese with English Abstract).Google Scholar
  63. van de Merwe J, Ibrahim K, Whittier J, 2005: Effects of hatchery shading and nest depth on the development and quality of Chelonia mydas hatchlings: implications for hatchery management in Peninsular, Malaysia. Aust J Zool 53: 205–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Williams SL, 1988: Thalassia testudinum productivity and grazing by green turtles in a highly disturbed seagrass bed. Mar Biol 98:447–455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Weimerskirch H, Inchausti P, Guinet C, Barbraud C, 2003: Trends in bird and seal populations as indicators of a system shift in the Southern Ocean. Antarctic Science 15, 249–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Winkler D.W and Allen P.E, 1996: The seasonal decline in tree swallow clutch size: physiological constraint or strategic adjustment? Ecology 77, 922–932.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Wood C. M, McDonald D.G, Eds., 1997: Global Warming: Implications for Freshwater and Marine Fish, Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  68. World Bank, 2004: Saving Fish and Fishers toward Sustainable and Equitable Governance of the Global Fishing SectorGoogle Scholar
  69. WWF (World Wild Fund), 2006: Bird Species and Climate Change. PP 12Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ramesha Chandrappa
    • 1
  • Sushil Gupta
    • 2
  • Umesh Chandra Kulshrestha
    • 3
  1. 1.Biomedical Waste SectionKarnataka State Pollution Control BoardBangaloreIndia
  2. 2.Risk Management Solutions IndiaNoidaIndia
  3. 3.School of Environmental SciencesJawaharlal Nehru UniversityNew DehliIndia

Personalised recommendations