A Self-Planned City

  • Juval PortugaliEmail author
Part of the Understanding Complex Systems book series (UCS)


The process of planning as developed during the 20th century was (and still is) characterized by two basic properties: Firstly, it was developed as a top-down hierarchical process in which the national planning authorities produce large-scale national plans, within which regional planning bodies plan their regional plans, within which urban planning authorities produce their urban plans and so on down the hierarchy to neighborhoods and below. The major socio-spatial-political entity in such a system is the nation-state and indeed planning is seen as its executing arm. In such a system it is just natural that planning ideas and innovation should come top-down by the planners – a situation that might often imply a nondemocratic planning reality – as the story of advocacy planning testifies.


Planning Authority Singular Element Public Open Space Qualitative Relation Plan Support System 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dept. of Geography and the Human EnvironmentTel Aviv UniversityTel AvivIsrael

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