Complexity, Cognition, and Planning
The act of planning accompanies cities from their very origin: The existence of cities, as noted in the previous chapter was interpreted as an indication for the existence of planning. Nowadays, however, planning is a profession and scientific discipline. In this conjunction between planning and cities it is common to make a distinction between planned and unplanned cities that are often called “organic cities”. American cities with their iron grid road structure as well as several of the world’s capital cities are often cited as typical planned cities, and of course, new towns. A ‘new town’ is explicitly defined as a city or a town that was carefully planned from its inception in a previously undeveloped area. On the other hand, “old towns”, old city centers such as European middle ages towns are often described as unplanned “organic” towns and cities (e.g., Hillier and Hanson 1984). But see Chap. 5 on this issue.