Notes on the Category ‘City’

  • Juval PortugaliEmail author
Part of the Understanding Complex Systems book series (UCS)


Cities are huge artifacts – among the largest artifacts ever produced by humans. Each city is also an environment – an artificial environment (see next chapter). For about half the world’s population, the city is the environment within which they live, act and behave. Through their action and behavior, people constantly reproduce and change that environment. The city is also a category – a cognitive construct in the mind of people that refers to the many city instances that exist in the world.


Cognitive Science Cognitive System Family Resemblance Classical Category Good Exemplar 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dept. of Geography and the Human EnvironmentTel Aviv UniversityTel AvivIsrael

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