Mixtures of Bottom Wood Ash and Meat and Bone Meal as NPK Fertilizer

  • Trond Knapp HaraldsenEmail author
  • Per Anker Pedersen
  • Arne Grønlund


Bottom wood ash (BWA) contains high concentrations of Ca, Mg, K and P, whereas meat and bone meal (MBM) has been found to be a good N and P fertilizer. In a pot experiment on soils with low contents of readily available K and P, the effects of a mixture of MBM and BWA were compared with those of mineral NPK (21–4–10), MBM, MBM plus K and Mg mineral fertilizer, and MBM and different types of crushed K- or Mg-rich rock.

The mixture of MBM and BWA gave the highest yield of barley, at the same level as mineral for NPK, and significantly higher than for MBM alone. For the yield of spring wheat there was no significant difference between the treatments with BWA or other K-rich additives to MBM, MBM used alone and mineral NPK. Compared with the other treatments, the MBM and BWA mixture significantly increased the pH of the soils by 0.5 units. MBM plus BWA represents an interesting concept for development of recycled NPK fertilizer of organic origin.


Barley Grain Unfertilized Control Barley Yield Ammonium Lactate Bioenergy Plant 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The pot experiment was a part of a project supported by the programme “ORIO-Organic Waste Products and Recycling of Resources” and Norsk Protein AS (grant no. 403). Ellen Zakariassen is thanked for skilful technical assistance and experimental work. Additional analyses of ash and further work on the fertilizer concept were carried out as a part of WP 1.4 “Residues upgrading and use” in CenBio, Bioenergy Innovation Centre (, which is supported by the Research Council of Norway, Norsk Protein AS and Akershus Energi AS.


  1. Bougnom BP, Knapp BA, Etoa FX, Elhottová D, Němcová A, Insam H (2010) Designer composts for ameliorating acid tropical soils: effects on the soil microbiota. Appl Soil Ecol 45:319–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bougnom BP, Knapp BA, Etoa FX, Insam H (2011) Possible use of wood ash and compost for improving acid tropical soils. In: Insam H, Knapp BA (eds) Recycling of biomass ashes. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 87–106Google Scholar
  3. Bremner JM (1960) Determination of nitrogen in the soil by the Kjeldahl method. J Soil Sci 55:1–33Google Scholar
  4. Chojnacka K, Baranska M, Gorecka H, Gorecki H (2006) Utilization of animal bones, feathers and wood ash in the making of mineral fertilizers. Przem Chem 85:1256–1259Google Scholar
  5. Clapman WM, Zibelske LM (1992) Wood ash as a liming amendment. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 23:1209–1227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Egnér H, Riehm H, Domingo WR (1960) Untersuchungen über die chemische Boden-analyse als Grundlage für den Beurteilung des Nährstoffzustandes der Böden. II. Chemische Extrations Methoden zur Phosphor und Kaliumbestimmung. K Lantbrukshögsk Annal 26:199–215Google Scholar
  7. Elonen P (1971) Particle-size analysis of soils. Acta Agral Fenn 122:1–122Google Scholar
  8. Erich MS (1991) Agronomic effectiveness of wood ash as a source of phosphorus and potassium. J Environ Qual 20:576–581CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Etiegni L, Campbell AG, Mahler RL (1991a) Evaluation of wood ash disposal on agricultural land. 1. Potential as soil additive and liming agent. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 22:243–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Etiegni L, Mahler RL, Campbell AG, Shafii B (1991b) Evaluation of wood ash disposal on agricultural land. 2. Potential toxic effects on plant growth. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 22:257–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Franzefoss (2007) Kalkhåndboka,, version 21 Jul 2007.åndbok_rev.pdf. Accessed 26 Jul 2010Google Scholar
  12. Fredriksson H, Salomonsson L, Salomonsson A-C (1997) Wheat cultivated with organic fertilizers and urea: baking performance and dough properties. Acta Agric Scand Sect B Soil Plant Sci 47:35–42Google Scholar
  13. Fredriksson H, Salomonsson L, Andersson R, Salomonsson A-C (1998) Effects of protein and starch characteristics on the baking properties of wheat cultivated by different strategies with organic fertilizers and urea. Acta Agric Scand Sect B Soil Plant Sci 48:49–57Google Scholar
  14. Hansen TM (2004) Separation og genanvendelse af aske fra biobrædselanlæg. Miljøprojekt no. 962 2004. Miljøministeriet, Miljøstyrelsen, p 161Google Scholar
  15. Haraldsen TK, Andersen U, Krogstad T, Sørheim R (2010) Liquid digestate from anaerobic treatment of source separated household waste as fertilizer to barley. In: Lasardi K, Manios T, Bidlingmaier K, de Bertoldi M, Diaz L, Stentiford EI (eds) Proceedings of the 7th international conference ORBIT 2010, Grafima, Thessaloniki, Greece, 2010, pp 564–569Google Scholar
  16. ISO (2007) International Standard ISO 11885 Water quality – Determination of selected elements by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Second edition 2007-08-01, The International Organization for Standardization (ISO), p 40Google Scholar
  17. Jeng A, Haraldsen TK, Vagstad N, Grønlund A, Tveitnes S (2004) Meat and bone meal as nitrogen fertilizer to cereals in Norway. Agric Food Sci 13:268–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jeng A, Haraldsen TK, Grønlund A, Pedersen PA (2006) Meat and bone meal as nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer to cereals and rye grass. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 76:183–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Knapp BA, Insam H (2011) Recycling of biomass ashes – current technologies and future research needs. In: Insam H, Knapp BA (eds) Recycling of biomass ashes. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 1–16Google Scholar
  20. Kuba T, Tschöll A, Partl C, Meyer K, Insam H (2008) Wood ash admixture to organic wastes improves compost and its performance. Agric Ecosyst Environ 127:43–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Meyers NL, Kopecky MJ (1998) Industrial wood ash as a soil amendment for crop production. TAPPI J 81:123–130Google Scholar
  22. Mozaraffi M, Rosen CJ, Russelle MP, Nater EA (2000) Corn and soil response to application of ash generated from gasified alfalfa stems. Soil Sci 165:896–907CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Norwegian Ministry of Food and Agriculture (2003) Forskrift om gjødselvarer mv. av organisk opphav. FOR 2003-07-04 nr 951. Accessed 23 Apr 2010
  24. Norwegian Ministry of Food and Agriculture (2007) Forskrift om animalske biprodukter som ikke er beregnet på konsum. FOR 2007-10-27 nr 1254. Accessed 23 Apr 2010
  25. Øgaard AF, Krogstad T, Lunnan T (2002) Ability of some Norwegian soils to supply grass with potassium (K) – soil analyses as predictors of K supply from soil. Soil Use Manage 18:412–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ohno T (1992) Neutralization of soil acidity and release of phosphorus and potassium by wood ash. J Environ Qual 21:433–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Pradhan SK, Holopainen JK, Weisell J, Heinonen-Tanski H (2010) Human urine and wood ash as plant nutrients for red beet (Beta vulgaris) cultivation. Impacts on yield quality. J Agric Food Chem 58:2034–2039CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Pratt PF (1965) Potassium. In: Black CA (ed) Methods of soil analysis, part 2. Chemical and microbiological properties. American Society for Agronomy, Madison, pp 1023–1031Google Scholar
  29. Risse M (2002) Best management practice for wood ash as agricultural soil amendment. The University of Georgia, College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Athens, 1142Google Scholar
  30. Saarelaa I (1991) Wood, bark, peat and coal ashes as liming agents and sources of calcium, magnesium, potassium and phosphorus. Ann Agric Fenn 30:375–388Google Scholar
  31. Salomonsson L, Jonsson A, Salomonsson A-C, Nilsson G (1994) Effects of organic fertilizers and urea when applied to spring wheat. Acta Agric Scand Sect B Soil Plant Sci 44:170–178Google Scholar
  32. Salomonsson L, Salomonsson A-C, Olofsson S, Jonsson A (1995) Effects of organic fertilizers and urea when applied to winter wheat. Acta Agric Scand Sect B Soil Plant Sci 45:171–180Google Scholar
  33. Saraber A, Cuperus M, Pels J (2011) Ash from combustion of cacao residues for nutrient recycling: a case study. In: Insam H, Knapp BA (eds) Recycling of biomass ashes. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 107–120Google Scholar
  34. Ylivainio K, Uusitalo R, Turtola E (2008) Meat bone meal and fox manure as P sources for ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) grown on a limed soil. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 81:267–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Trond Knapp Haraldsen
    • 1
    Email author
  • Per Anker Pedersen
    • 2
  • Arne Grønlund
    • 1
  1. 1.Soil and Environment DivisionNorwegian Institute for Agricultural and Environmental ResearchÅsNorway
  2. 2.Department of Plant and Environmental ScienceNorwegian University of Life SciencesÅsNorway

Personalised recommendations