More than a century after Jackson’s revolutionary concept that the human motor system is organized in a hierarchical way with the motor cortex representing the top level, one may observe that the data accumulated ever since still support this view. Although our knowledge of the detailed organization of the isocortical motor system is still very fragmentary, the definition of parieto-frontal circuits suggests that, in addition to a hierarchical component, there are also parallel pathways that influence cortical motor control.


Motor Cortex Motor System Human Motor Parallel Pathway Cortical Motor 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stefan Geyer
    • 1
  1. 1.C. & O. Vogt Brain Research InstituteUniversity of DüsseldorfDüsseldorfGermany

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