The Ability of Children with Mild Learning Disabilities to Encode Emotions through Facial Expressions

  • Christiane El-Haddad
  • Yiannis Laouris
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 6456)


Children with limitations in their abilities to encode and decode emotions through corresponding facial expressions may be excluded from social and educational processes. Previous research has demonstrated that children with learning difficulties may suffer differentially in their ability to recognize and denominate facial expressions that correspond to the basic emotional states. This study evaluates the ability of children with mild learning difficulties to produce seven basic facial expressions (happiness, sadness, anger, afraid, disgusted, confidence, and surprise) in response to verbal commands. The evaluation was based on a subject’s ability to communicate an emotional state correctly to his/her peers. The results show that their ability to produce a facial expression was affected in different degrees and that there exist correlations between the ability to perform certain facial expressions.


Facial expressions emotions learning difficulties multimodal neuroscience 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christiane El-Haddad
    • 1
  • Yiannis Laouris
    • 1
  1. 1.Cyprus Neuroscience & Technology InstituteNicosiaCyprus

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