Advertisement

Visual Sociology in the Classroom: Fostering Interaction Awareness Using Video

  • Paolo Parmeggiani
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 6456)

Abstract

In this paper we will present an empirical research about the interactions between teacher and students in a grade three of a secondary school analyzed with video. The methodologies, which shaped our data collection and analysis, are the action research, the conversation analysis of institutional talk within a class, the stimulated recall, and the visual sociology with Computer-Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis Software. We taped some lessons; through the replay of their daily activity we involved students and teacher separately in an auto-observation and video analysis process with the software Transana, highlighting those behaviors which were outstanding for them, eliciting their subjective meanings. Finally we organized a group discussion about the respective interpretative video analysis of the lesson, allowing a reciprocal meta-communication.

This method of group video–analysis forces a re-examination of fixed practices, helping to redefine rigid patterns of interaction and didactic routine.

Keywords

Video-analysis visual sociology action research conversation analysis stimulated recall CAQDAS 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Bateson, G.: Steps to ecology of mind. Ballantine Books, New York (1972)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sarangi, S.: Beyond Language, Beyond Awareness: Metacommunication in Instructional Settings. Language Awareness 7, 63–68 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Branco, A.U., Valsiner, J. (eds.): Communication and Metacommunication in Human Development. Information Age Publishing, Charlotte (2004)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    McHoul, A.W.: The organization of turns at formal talk in the classroom. Language and Society 7, 183–213 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Wagner, J.: Images of Information: Still Photography in the Social Sciences. Sage Publications, London (1979)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Becker, H.: Visual Sociology, Documentary Photography and PhotoJournalism: it’s Almost All a Matter of Context. Visual Sociology 10, 5–14 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Faccioli, P., Losacco, G.: Nuovo manuale di sociologia visuale. Franco Angeli, Milano (2010)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lewin, K.: Action Research and Minority Problems. Journal of Social Issues 3, 34–46 (1946)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bloom, B.S.: The Thought Process of Students in Discussion. In: French, S.J. (ed.) Accent on Teaching; experiments in general education. Harper & Brothers, New York (1953)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mehan, H.: The Structure of Classroom Discourse. In: Dijk, T.A. (ed.) Handbook of Discourse Analysis, vol. 3, pp. 120–131. Academic Press, New York (1985)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lemke, J.L.: Talking science: Language, learning, and values. Ablex, Norwood (1990)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lewins, A., Silver, C.: Using Software in Qualitative Research. Sage, London (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Berger, P.L., Luckmann, T.: The social construction of reality: a treatise in the sociology of knowledge. Anchor Books, Garden City (1966)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Denzin, N.K.: The research act in sociology: A theoretical introduction to sociological method. Butterworths, London (1970)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Patton, M.Q.: Qualitative Evaluation and Research Methods. Sage, Newbury Park (1990)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Pike, K.L.: Language in relation to a unified theory of the structure of human behavior. Summer Institute of Linguistics, Glendale, CA (1954)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Helfrich, H.: Beyond the dilemma of cross-cultural psychology: Resolving the tension between etic and emic approaches. Culture & Psychology, 131–153 (1999)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Matsumoto, D., Juang, L.: Culture and psychology. Thompson Wadsworth, Belmont (2008)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Harris, M.: History and significance of the emic/etic distinction. Annual Review of Anthropology 5, 329–350 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Headland, T.N., Pike, K.L., Harris, M. (eds.): Emics and Etics: The Insider/Outsider Debate. Sage Publications, Newbury Park (1990)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Stenhouse, L.: An Introduction to Curriculum Research and Development. Heinemann, London (1975)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Carr, W., Kemmis, S.: Becoming Critical: education, knowledge and action research. Falmer, Lewes (1986)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    McNiff, J.: Action Research: Principles and Practice. Macmillan, Basingstoke (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bogdan, R., Biklen, S.K.: Qualitative Research For Education. Allyn and Bacon, Boston (1992)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Usher, R., Bryant, I., Johnston, R.: Adult Education and the Postmodern Challenge. Learning beyond the limits, Routledge, London (1997)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Stringer, E.T.: Action Research. Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks (1999)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Nunan, D.: Understanding Language Classrooms. A Guide for Teacher-Initiated Research. Prentice Hal, New York (1989)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Elliot, J.: Action Research for Educational Change. Open University Press, Buckingham (1991)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Eliot, J.: La ricerca - azione: un quadro di riferimento per l’autovalutazione nelle scuole. In: Scurati, C., Giordan, A., Elliot, J. (eds.) La ricerca –azione, Boringhieri, Torino (1983)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kagan, N., Schauble, P., Resinikoff, A., Danish, S.J., Kratwohl, D.R.: Studies in Human Interaction. In: Educational Publishing Services, Michigan State University, East Lansing Michigan (1967)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Gass, S.M., Mackey, A.: Stimulated Recall Methodology in Second Language Research. Lawrence Erlbaum, Mahwah (2000)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Henderson, L.: Stimulated recall and mental models: tools for teaching and learning computer information literacy. Scarecrow Press, Lanham (2006)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Dowrick, P.W., Biggs, S.J. (eds.): Using video. Psychological and Social Applications. John Wiley and Son, New York (1982)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Anning, A., Broadhead, P., Busher, H., Clarke, A., Dodgson, H., Taggart, L., White, S., Wilson, R.: Using video-recording for teacher professional development. School of Education, University of Leeds, Leeds (1990)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ulewicz, M., Beatty, A. (eds.): The Power of Video Technology in International Comparative Research in Education. National Academy Press, Washington (2001)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Tochon, F.V.: Video study groups for education, professional development, and change. Atwood Publishing, Madison (1999)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Tochon, F.V.: Education research: New avenues for video pedagogy and feedback in teacher education. International Journal of Applied Semiotic 2, 9–27 (2001)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Canning-Wilson, C.: Role of video in the F/SL classroom. In: Riley, S., Troud, S., Coombe, C. (eds.) Teaching, learning and technology, TESOL, vol. 1, pp. 69–76. United Arab Emirates, Arabia (1999)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Sherin, M.G., van Es, E.A.: Using video to support teachers’ ability to notice classroom interactions. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education 13, 475–491 (2005)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Raingruber, B.: Video-Cued Narrative Reflection: A Research Approach for Articulating Tacit, Relational, and Embodied Understandings. Qualitative Health Research 13, 15 (2003)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Prosser, J.: Visual methods and the visual culture of schools. Visual Studies 22, 13–30 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Garfinkel, H.: Ethnomethodology. Polity Press, Cambridge (1967)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Drew, P., Heritage, J.: Analyzing Talk at Work: An Introduction. In: Drew, P., Heritage, J. (eds.) Talk at Work, pp. 3–65. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1992)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Mehan, H.: Structuring school structure. Harvard Educational Review 48, 32–64 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Lee, Y.-A.: Third turn position in teacher talk: Contingency and the work of teaching. Journal of Pragmatics 39, 1204–1230 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Rop, C.J.: The meaning of student inquiry questions: a teacher’s beliefs and responses. International Journal of Science Education 24, 717–736 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Fele, G., Paoletti, I.: Interazioni in classe, Il Mulino, Bologna (2003)Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Candela, A.: Students’ power in classroom discourse. Linguistics and Education 10, 139–163 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Sacks, H., Schegloff, E.A., Jefferson, G.: A Simplest Systematics for the Organization of Turn-Taking for Conversation. Language 50, 696–735 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Mehan, H.: Learning lessons: Social organization in the classroom. Harvard University Press, Cambridge (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Hauser, E.: Teacher Reformulations of Students. Answers during an Episode of Pedagogical Talk Bulletin of the University of Electro-Communications 19, 93–99 (2006)Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Sinclair, J.M., Coulthard, R.M.: Towards an analysis of discourse: The English used by teachers and pupils. Oxford University Press, Oxford (1975)Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Busse, A., Borromeo Ferri, R.: Methodological reflections on a threestep- design combining observation, stimulated recall and interview. ZMD 35 (2003)Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Woods, D., Fassnacht, C.: Transana The Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System, Madison, WI (2007)Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Greer, T.: Transcription approaches to multilingual discourse analysis. In: 2nd Annual JALT Pan-SIG Conference. Kyoto Institute of Technology, Japan, Kyoto (2003)Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Given, L.T. (ed.): The Sage encyclopedia of qualitative research methods. Sage, Thousand Oaks (2008)Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Nassaji, H., Wells, G.: What’s the use of ‘Triadic dialogue’? an investigation of teacher–student interaction. Applied Linguistics 21, 376–406 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paolo Parmeggiani
    • 1
  1. 1.Università degli Studi di UdineUdineItalia

Personalised recommendations