Early Algebraization pp 511-528 | Cite as

# A Procedural Focus and a Relationship Focus to Algebra: How U.S. Teachers and Japanese Teachers Treat Systems of Equations

## Abstract

This chapter explores two contrasting ways of presenting algebra by looking at key differences across the presentation of simultaneous equations to students in eighth-grade. The examples are from a qualitative analysis of the 1995 TIMSS Video Study data including eighth-grade mathematics instruction in Japan and the United States covering topics on simultaneous equations. The U.S. lesson example shows a procedural approach to this topic, where students focus on getting answers through a series of routine steps. In contrast, the Japanese lesson highlights a strong focus on building generalized solution methods and understanding relationships represented in systems of equations. A discussion of key differences as they relate to important ideas in understanding algebra compared to how it was treated in the classrooms follows the examples.

## Keywords

Classroom Instruction Simultaneous Equation Equal Sign American Educational Research Association Video Study## Preview

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