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The Global Distribution of Aerosols

  • Hartmut GraßlEmail author
Chapter
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Abstract

The radiation budget of planet Earth, given the solar irradiance at the top of the atmosphere, is to a large extent determined by minor constituents of the atmosphere. Less than three thousandths of its mass – including water vapour, cloud water and cloud ice – regulate how much solar radiation reaches the surface and from where in the atmosphere or on the surface the same amount of energy as absorbed globally from solar irradiance is radiated back to space in the thermal infrared. The least understood part of the Earth’s radiation budget and its changes is related to an extremely small fraction of the minor constituents, the aerosol particles, liquid or solid particles suspended in air in the size range from about a nanometer to a few micrometers. At a typical mass mixing ratio of 10 μg/m3 in the free troposphere aerosol particles constitute only about 10−10 of the mass or 10−13 of the volume fraction of tropospheric air.

Keywords

Aerosol Particle Aerosol Optical Depth Solar Irradiance Cloud Droplet Dust Devil 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Max-Planck Institute for MeteorologyHamburgGermany

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