Polyfluorinated Compounds in the Coastal and Marine Atmosphere

  • Annika JahnkeEmail author
  • Ralf Ebinghaus


Per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs) comprise a large group of chemicals, consisting of a hydrophobic alkyl chain and usually possessing a hydrophilic functional group. The alkyl chain is partly or fully fluorinated and typically contains between 4 and 18 carbon atoms (De Voogt and Saez 2006). Therefore, PFCs are both oleophobic and hydrophobic and form strong surfactants. PFCs comprise ionic compounds like perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (including perfluorooctane sulfonate, PFOS) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs including perfluorooctanoate, PFOA, Table 11.1) as well as neutral, volatile PFCs like fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs), N-alkylated fluorooctane sulfonamides (FOSAs) and sulfonamidoethanols (FOSEs, Table 11.2).


Sample ANT1 African West Coast Fluorotelomer Alcohol Sewage Treatment Plant Sludge Sample Abbreviation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Armitage, J., I.T. Cousins, R.C. Buck, K. Prevedouros, M.H. Russell, M. Macleod, S.H. Korzeniowski, 2006: Modelling Global-Scale Fate and Transport of Perfluorooctanoate Emitted from Direct Sources. Environ. Sci. Technol. 40, 6969–6975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barber, J.L., U. Berger, C. Chaemfa, S. Huber, A. Jahnke, C. Temme, K.C. Jones, 2007: Analysis of Per- and Polyfluorinated Alkyl Substances in Air Samples from Northwest Europe. J. Environ. Monit. 9, 530–541.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. D’Eon, J., M.D. Hurley, T.J. Wallington, S.A. Mabury, 2006: Atmospheric Chemistry of N-methyl Perfluorobutane Sulfonamidoethanol, C4F9SO2N(CH3)CH2CH2OH: Kinetics and Mechanism of Reaction with OH. Environ. Sci. Technol. 40, 1862–1868.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. De Voogt, P., M. Saez, 2006: Analytical Chemistry of Perfluoroalkylated Substances. Trends. Anal. Chem. 2006, 25, 326–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Dinglasan, M.J.A., Y. Ye, E.A. Edwards, S.A. Mabury, 2004: Fluorotelomer Alcohol Biodegradation Yields Poly- and Perfluorinated Acids. Environ. Sci. Technol. 38, 2857–2864.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dreyer, A., C. Temme, R. Sturm, R.J. Ebinghaus, 2008: Optimized Method Avoiding Solvent-Induced Response Enhancement in the Analysis of Volatile and Semi-volatile Polyfluorinated Alkylated Compounds Using Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry. J. Chromatogr. A 1178, 199–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ellis, D.A., J.W. Martin, S.A. Mabury, M.D. Hurley, M.P. Sulbaek Andersen, T.J. Wallington, 2003: Atmospheric Lifetime of Fluorotelomer Alcohols. Environ. Sci. Technol. 37, 3816–3820.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ellis, D.A., J.W. Martin, A.O. De Silva, S.A. Mabury, M.D. Hurley, M.P. Sulbaek Andersen, T.J. Wallington, 2004: Degradation of Fluorotelomer Alcohols: A Likely Atmospheric Source of Perfluorinated Carboxylic Acids. Environ. Sci. Technol. 38, 3316–3321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Giesy, J.P., K. Kannan, 2002: Peer Reviewed: Perfluorochemical Surfactants in the Environment. Environ. Sci. Technol. 36, 146A–152A.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gundel, L.A., V.C. Lee, K.R.R. Mahanama, R.K. Stevens, J.M. Daisey, 1995: Direct Determination of the Phase Distributions of Semi-volatile Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Using Annular Denuders. Atmos. Environ. 29, 1719–1733.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Jahnke, A., 2007: Polyfluorinated Alkyl Substances (PFAS) in the Marine Atmosphere. Ph.D. thesis, published as GKSS report 2007/8, ISSN 0344-9629.Google Scholar
  12. Jahnke, A., L. Ahrens, R. Ebinghaus, U. Berger, J.L. Barber, C. Temme, 2007a: An Improved Method for the Analysis of Volatile Polyfluorinated Alkyl Substances in Environmental Air Samples. Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 387, 965–975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jahnke, A., L. Ahrens, R. Ebinghaus, C. Temme, 2007b: Urban versus Remote Air Concentrations of Fluorotelomer Alcohols and Other Polyfluorinated Alkyl Substances in Germany. Environ. Sci. Technol. 41, 745–752.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Jahnke, A., U. Berger, R. Ebinghaus, C. Temme, 2007c: Latitudinal Gradient of Airborne Polyfluorinated Alkyl Substances in the Marine Atmosphere Between Germany and South Africa (53°N–33°S). Environ. Sci. Technol. 41, 3055–3061.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Jahnke, A., S. Huber, C. Temme, H. Kylin, U. Berger, 2007d: Development and Application of a Simplified Sampling Method for Volatile Polyfluorinated Alkyl Substances in Indoor and Environmental Air. J. Chromatogr. A 1164, 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Jahnke, A., J.L. Barber, K.C. Jones, C. Temme, 2009: Quantitative Trace Analysis of Polyfluorinated Alkyl Substances (PFAS) in Ambient Air Samples from Mace Head (Ireland): A Method Intercomparison. Atmos. Environ. 43, 844–850.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Jaward, F.M., N.J. Farrar, T. Harner, A.J. Sweetman, K.C. Jones, 2004: Passive Air Sampling of PCBs, PBDEs, and Organochlorine Pesticides Across Europe. Environ. Sci. Technol. 38, 34–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kaiser, J., M. Enserink, 2000: Treaty Takes a POP at the Dirty Dozen. Science 290, 2053–2054.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kim, S.K., K. Kannan, 2007: Perfluorinated Acids in Air, Rain, Snow, Surface Runoff, and Lakes: Relative Importance of Pathways to Contamination of Urban Lakes. Environ. Sci. Technol. 41, 8328–8334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Loewen, M., F. Wania, F. Wang, G. Tomy, 2008: Altitudinal Transect of Atmospheric and Aqueous Fluorinated Organic Compounds in Western Canada. Environ. Sci. Technol. 42, 2374–2379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Martin, J.W., D.C.G. Muir, C.A. Moody, D.A. Ellis, W.C. Kwan, K.R. Solomon, S.A. Mabury, 2002: Collection of Airborne Fluorinated Organics and Analysis by Gas Chromatography/Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry. Anal. Chem. 74, 584–590.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Martin, J.W., M.M. Smithwick, B.M. Braune, P.F. Hoekstra, D.C.G. Muir, S.A. Mabury, 2004: Identification of Long-Chain Perfluorinated Acids in Biota from the Canadian Arctic. Environ. Sci. Technol. 38, 373–380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Martin, J.W., D.A. Ellis, S.A. Mabury, M.D. Hurley, T.J. Wallington, 2006: Atmospheric Chemistry of Perfluoroalkanesulfonamides: Kinetic and Product Studies of the OH Radical and Cl Atom Initiated Oxidation of N-Ethyl Perfluorobutanesulfonamide. Environ. Sci. Technol. 40, 864–872.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. McMurdo, C.J., D.A. Ellis, E. Webster, J. Butler, R.D. Christensen, L.K. Reid, 2008: Aerosol Enrichment of the Surfactant PFO and Mediation of the Water−Air Transport of Gaseous PFOA. Environ. Sci. Technol. 42, 3969–3974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Oono, S., E. Matsubara, K.H. Harada, S. Takagi, S. Hamada, A. Asakawa, K. Inoue, I. Watanabe, A. Koizumi, 2008: Survey of Airborne Polyfluorinated Telomers in Keihan Area, Japan. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 80,102–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Piekarz, A.M., T. Primbs, J.A. Field, D.F. Barofsky, S. Simonich, 2007: Semivolatile Fluorinated Organic Compounds in Asian and Western U.S. Air Masses. Environ. Sci. Technol. 41, 8248–8255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Prevedouros, K., I.T. Cousins, R.C. Buck, S.H. Korzeniowski, 2006: Sources, Fate and Transport of Perfluorocarboxylates Environ. Sci. Technol. 40, 32–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Primbs, T., A. Piekarz, G. Wilson, D. Schmedding, C. Higginbotham, J. Field, S. Simonich, 2008: Influence of Asian and Western United States Urban Areas and Fires on the Atmospheric Transport of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Polychlorinated Biphenyls, and Fluorotelomer Alcohols in the Western United States. Environ. Sci. Technol. 42, 6385–6391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Schultz, M.M., D.F. Barofsky, J.A. Field, 2003: Fluorinated Alkyl Surfactants. Environ. Eng. Sci. 20, 487–501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Shoeib, M., T. Harner, M. Ikonomou, K. Kannan, 2004: Indoor and Outdoor Air Concentrations and Phase Partitioning of Perfluoroalkyl Sulfonamides and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers. Environ. Sci. Technol. 38, 1313–1320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Shoeib, M., T. Harner, B.H. Wilford, K.C. Jones, J. Zhu, 2005: Perfluorinated Sulfonamides in Indoor and Outdoor Air and Indoor Dust: Occurrence, Partitioning, and Human Exposure. Environ. Sci. Technol. 39, 6599–6606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Shoeib, M., T. Harner, P. Vlahos, 2006: Perfluorinated Chemicals in the Arctic Atmosphere. Environ. Sci. Technol. 40, 7577–7583.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Smithwick, M., D.C.G. Muir, S.A. Mabury, K.R. Solomon, J.W. Martin, C. Sonne, E.W. Born, R.L. Letcher, R. Dietz, 2005a: Perflouroalkyl Contaminants in Liver Tissue from East Greenland Polar Bears (Ursus maritimus). Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 24, 981–986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Smithwick, M., S.A. Mabury, K.R. Solomon, C. Sonne, J.W. Martin, E.W. Born, R. Dietz, A.E. Derocher, R.J. Letcher, T.J. Evans, G.W. Gabrielsen, J. Nagy, I. Stirling, M.K. Taylor, D.C.G. Muir, 2005b: Circumpolar Study of Perfluoroalkyl Contaminants in Polar Bears (Ursus maritimus). Environ. Sci. Technol. 39, 5517–5523.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Stock, N.L., F.K. Lau, D.A. Ellis, J.W. Martin, D.C.G. Muir, S.A. Mabury, 2004: Polyfluorinated Telomer Alcohols and Sulfonamides in the North American Troposphere. Environ. Sci. Technol. 38, 991–996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Stock, N.L., V.I. Furdui, D.C.G. Muir, S.A. Mabury, 2007: Perfluoroalkyl Contaminants in the Canadian Arctic: Evidence of Atmospheric Transport and Local Contamination. Environ. Sci. Technol. 41, 3529–3536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Tao, L., K. Kannan, N. Kajiwara, M.M. Costa, G. Fillmann, S. Takahashi, S. Tanabe, 2006: Perfluorooctanesulfonate and Related Fluorochemicals in Albatrosses, Elephant Seals, Penguins, and Polar Skuas from the Southern Ocean. Environ. Sci. Technol. 40, 7642–7648.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Theobald, N., W. Gerwinski, C. Caliebe, M. Haarich, 2007: Entwicklung und Validierung einer Methode zur Bestimmung von polyfluorierten organischen Substanzen in Meerwasser, Sedimenten und Biota; Untersuchungen zum Vorkommen dieser Schadstoffe in der Nord- und Ostsee. Scientific report Nr. 41/2007 of the German Federal Environmental Agency. UBA-FB 00 001049, 2007, ISSN 1862-4804.Google Scholar
  39. Tomy, G.T., S.A. Tittlemier, V.P. Palace, W.R. Budakowski, E. Braekevelt, L. Brinkworth, K. Friesen, 2004: Biotransformation of N-Ethyl Perfluorooctanesulfonamide by Rainbow Trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) Liver Microsomes. Environ. Sci. Technol. 38, 758–762.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Wallington, T.J., M.D. Hurley, J. Xia, D.J. Wuebbles, S. Sillman, A. Ito, J.E. Penner, D.A. Ellis, J. Martin, S.A. Mabury, O.J. Nielsen, M.P. Sulbaek Andersen, 2006: Formation of C7F15COOH (PFOA) and Other Perfluorocarboxylic Acids During the Atmospheric Oxidation of 8:2 Fluorotelomer Alcohol. Environ. Sci. Technol. 40, 924–930.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Wang, N., B. Szostek, P.W. Folsom, L.M. Sulecki, V. Capka, R.C. Buck, W.R. Berti, J.T. Gannon, 2005a: Aerobic Biotransformation of 14 C-Labeled 8-2 Telomer B Alcohol by Activated Sludge from a Domestic Sewage Treatment Plant. Environ. Sci. Technol. 39, 531–538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Wang, N., B. Szostek, R.C. Buck, P.W. Folsom, L.M. Sulecki, V. Capka, W.R. Berti, J.T. Gannon, 2005b: Fluorotelomer Alcohol Biodegradation Direct Evidence That Perfluorinated Carbon Chains Breakdown. Environ. Sci. Technol. 39, 7516–7528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environmental Chemistry, Helmholtz-Zentrum GeesthachtInstitute of Coastal ResearchGeesthachtGermany
  2. 2.Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry UnitStockholm UniversityStockholmSweden

Personalised recommendations