Clinical Perspectives

Part of the Advances in Anatomy, Embryology and Cell Biology book series (ADVSANAT, volume 209)


The concept of INIM force in the biology of the ovary will generate novel strategies in the treatment of ovarian disorders. As long as ovarian INIM is balanced, it is beneficial for a controlled inflammation and a coordinated remodeling of the periovulatory events.


Polycystic Ovary Follicular Fluid Premature Ovarian Failure PCOS Woman Malignant Ovarian Tumor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Api M (2009) Is ovarian reserve diminished after laparoscopic ovarian drilling? Gynecol Endocrinol 25:159–165CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bauer M, Reibiger I, Spanel-Borowski K (2001) Leucocyte proliferation in the bovine corpus luteum. Reproduction 121:297–305CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bausenwein J, Serke H, Eberle K, Hirrlinger J, Jogschies P, Hmeidan FA, Blumenauer V, Spanel-Borowski K (2010) Elevated levels of oxidized low-density lipoprotein and of catalase activity in follicular fluid of obese women. Mol Hum Reprod 16:117–124CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Best CL, Pudney J, Welch WR, Burger N, Hill JA (1996) Localization and characterization of white blood cell populations within the the human ovary throughout the menstrual cycle and menopause. Hum Reprod 11:790–797PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Brännström M, Pascoe V, Norman RJ, McClure N (1994b) Localization of leukocyte subsets in the follicle wall and in the corpus luteum. Fertil Steril 61:488–495PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Erlebacher A, Zhang D, Parlow AF, Glimcher LH (2004) Ovarian insufficiency and early pregnancy loss induced by activation of the innate immune system. J Clin Invest 114:39–48PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Girling JE, Hedger MP (2007) Toll-like receptors in the gonads and reproductive tract: emerging roles in reproductive physiology and pathology. Immunol Cell Biol 85:481–489CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Heider U, Pedal I, Spanel-Borowski K (2001) Increase in nerve fibers and loss of mast cells in polycystic and postmenopausal ovaries. Fertil Steril 75:1141–1147CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Hendriks ML, Ket JC, Hompes PG, Homburg R, Lambalk CB (2007) Why does ovarian surgery in PCOS help? Insight into the endocrine implications of ovarian surgery for ovulation induction in polycystic ovary syndrome. Hum Reprod Update 13:249–264CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Iwasaki A, Medzhitov R (2010) Regulation of adaptive immunity by the innate immune system. Science 327:291–295CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Kahnberg A, Enskog A, Brännström M, Lundin K, Bergh C (2009) Prediction of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome in women undergoing in vitro fertilization. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 88:1373–1381CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Lukassen HG, van der Meer A, van Lierop MJ, Lindeman EJ, Joosten I, Braat DD (2003) The proportion of follicular fluid CD16+CD56DIM NK cells is increased in IVF patients with idiopathic infertility. J Reprod Immunol 60:71–84CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Meyer O (2009) Interferons and autoimmune disorders. Joint Bone Spine 76:464–473CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Peacock A, Alvi NS, Mushtaq T (2010) Period problems: disorders of menstruation in adolescents. Arch Dis Child [Epub ahead of print]Google Scholar
  15. Peng Y, Martin DA, Kenkel J, Zhang K, Ogden CA, Elkon KB (2007) Innate and adaptive immune response to apoptotic cells. J Autoimmun 29:303–309CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Qublan H, Amarin Z, Nawasreh M, Diab F, Malkawi S, Al-Ahmad N, Balawneh M (2006) Luteinized unruptured follicle syndrome: incidence and recurrence rate in infertile women with unexplained infertility undergoing intrauterine insemination. Hum Reprod 21:2110–2113CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Rachon D, Teede H (2010) Ovarian function and obesity-interrelationship, impact on women’s reproductive lifespan and treatment options. Mol Cell Endocrinol 316:172–179CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Thomson RL, Buckley JD, Brinkworth GD (2010) Exercise for the treatment and management of overweight women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a review of the literature. Obes Rev [Epub ahead of print]Google Scholar
  19. Turvey SE, Broide DH (2010) Innate immunity. J Allergy Clin Immunol 125:S24–32CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Vilser C, Hueller H, Nowicki M, Hmeidan FA, Blumenauer V, Spanel-Borowski K (2010) The variable expression of lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor (LOX-1) and signs of autophagy and apoptosis in freshly harvested human granulosa cells depend on gonadotropin dose, age, and body weight. Fertil Steril 93:2706–2715CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Vujovic S (2009) Aetiology of premature ovarian failure. Menopause Int 15:72–75CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Wild RA, Carmina E, Diamanti-Kandarakis E, Dokras A, Escobar-Morreale HF, Futterweit W, Lobo R, Norman RJ, Talbott E, Dumesic DA (2010) Assessment of cardiovascular risk and prevention of cardiovascular disease in women with the polycystic ovary syndrome: a consensus statement by the Androgen Excess and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (AE-PCOS) Society. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 95:2038–2049CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Wu R, Fujii S, Ryan NK, van der Hoek KH, Jasper MJ, Sini I, Robertson SA, Robker RL, Norman RJ (2007) Ovarian leukocyte distribution and cytokine/chemokine mRNA expression in follicular fluid cells in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Hum Reprod 22:527–535CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Zhou M, McFarland-Mancini MM, Funk HM, Husseinzadeh N, Mounajjed T, Drew AF (2009) Toll-like receptor expression in normal ovary and ovarian tumors. Cancer Immunol Immunother 58:1375–1385CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of AnatomyUniversity of LeipzigLeipzigGermany

Personalised recommendations