Advertisement

The Role of Information Literacy in Environmental Scanning as a Strategic Information System - A Study of Singapore SMEs

  • Xue Zhang
  • Shaheen Majid
  • Schubert Foo
Part of the Communications in Computer and Information Science book series (CCIS, volume 96)

Abstract

The development of information technology and telecommunication has created both opportunities and challenges for business organizations. On the one hand, it provides various channels and applications for accessing, processing and distributing information; on the other hand, it imposes higher requirements of information literacy (IL) skills of employees for dealing with information. Despite the number of studies undertaken to investigate the role of IL in the workplace, few of them have integrated IL skills with a specific business management activity, and even fewer of them have tried to evaluate the impact of IL on real business applications. This study aims to investigate the role of IL skills in environmental scanning (ES), a strategic information system used by organizations to cope with environmental changes. It will use both quantitative and qualitative methods: the quantitative approach through questionnaire survey will focus on finding statistically significant effects; the qualitative method through face-to-face interview is expected to discover more explorative information. The scope of the research is limited to SMEs (Small and Medium Enterprises), as they form a significant chunk of the economy in many countries, and they are more sensitive towards environmental uncertainties due to their limited financial resources. This study is expected to fill the knowledge gaps and build up a new model of environmental scanning as a systematic information system with consideration of the effect of IL skills and information technology applications.

Keywords

Information literacy environmental scanning SME Singapore 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Kapitzke, C.: Information Literacy: A Positivist Epistemology and a Politics of Outformation. Educational Theory 53, 37–53 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Feather, J., Sturges, P. (eds.): International Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science (2003)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hancock, V.E.: Information Literacy for Lifelong Learning. ERIC Clearinghouse on Information & Technology, Syracuse University, N.Y. (1993)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Moore, P.: An Analysis of Information Literacy Education Worldwide. White Paper prepared for UNESCO, the U.S. National Commission on Libraries and Information Science, and the National Forum on Information Literacy, for use at the Information Literacy Meeting of Experts (2002)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bruce, C.: Information Literacy as a Catalyst for Educational Change: A Background Paper. Information Literacy Meeting of Experts (2002)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Stern, C.M.: Information Literacy “unplugged”: Teaching Information Literacy Worldwide Without Technology. White Paper prepared for UNESCO, the U.S. National Commission on Libraries and Information Science, and the National Forum on Information Literacy. Information Literacy Meeting of Experts, Prague, The Czech Republic (2002)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Mitchell, P.: Online Technology in the Curriculum: A Reality. ASLA XIV Beyond the Horizon Fremantle, Australia (1996)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kuhlthau, C.C.: Information Skills for an Information Society: A Review Of Research. Information Reports and Bibliographies 19, 14–26 (1990)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    ALA: A Progress Report On Information Literacy: An Update On The American Library Association Presidential Committee On Information Literacy: Final Report (1989)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Todd, R.J., Lamb, L., McNicholas, C.: The Power of Information Literacy: Unity of Education And Resources for the 21st Century. In: Annual Meeting of the International Association of School Librarianship (1992)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Goad, T.W.: Information Literacy and Workplace Performance. Quorum Books, Westport (2002)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Porter, M.E., Miller, V.E.: How Information Gives Competitive Advantages. Harvard Business Review 63, 110–128 (1985)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Karim, N.S.A., Hussein, R.: Managers’ Perception of Information Management and the Role of Information and Knowledge Managers: The Malaysian Perspectives. International Journal of Information Management 28, 114–127 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Drucker, P.: Be Data Literate - Know What To Know. The Wall Street Journal 16 (1992)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mutch, A.: Information Literacy: An Exploration. International Journal of Information Management 17, 377–386 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lyman, P.: Information Literacy. Liberal Education 87, 28–37 (2001)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bruce, C.: Workplace Experiences of Information Literacy. International Journal of Information Management 19, 33–47 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Cheuk, B.: Information Literacy in the Workplace Context: Issues, Best Practices And Challenges. Information Literacy Meeting of Experts (2002)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    O’Sullivan, C.: Is Information Literacy Relevant in the Real World? Reference Services Review 30, 7–14 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Aguilar, F.J.: Scanning the Business Environment. Macmillan, New York (1967)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Aaker, D.A.: Organizing a Strategic Information Scanning System. California Management Review 25, 76–83 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Albright, K.S.: Environmental Scanning: Radar for Success. Information Management Journal 38, 38–45 (2004)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Costa, J.: An Empirical-Based Review of The Concept of Environmental Scanning. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management 7, 4–9 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ebrahimi, B.P.: Perceived Strategic Uncertainty and Environmental Scanning Behavior of Hong Kong Chinese Executives. Journal of Business Research 49, 67–77 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    McGee, J.E., Sawyerr, O.O.: Uncertainty and Information Search Activities: A Study of Owner-Managers of Small High-Technology Manufacturing Firms. Journal of Small Business Management 41, 385–401 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Strandholm, K., Kumar, K.: Differences in Environmental Scanning Activities Between Large and Small Organizations: The Advantage Of Size. Journal of American Academy of Business 3, 416–421 (2003)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Prytherch, R. (ed.): Harrod’s Librarians’ Glossary: 9,000 Terms Used in Information Management, Library Science, Publishing, The Book Trades, And Archive Management. Gower Publishing Company, England (1995)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Avinson, D.E., Fitzgerald, G.: Information systems development: methodologies, techniques and tools. McGraw-Hill, New York (2006)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Subramanian, R., Fernandes, N., Harper, E.: Environmental Scanning in U.S. Companies: Their Nature And Their Relationship To Performance. Management International Review 33, 271–286 (1993)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ahituv, N., Zif, J., Machlin, I.: Environmental Scanning And Information Systems In Relation To Success In Introducing New Products. Information and Management 33, 201–211 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Giesecke, J., McNeil, B.: Transitioning to the Learning Organization. Library Trends 53, 54–67 (2004)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Myburgh, S.: Competitive Intelligence: Bridging Organizational Boundaries. Information Management Journal 38, 46–55 (2004)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Case, D.O.: Looking for Information: A Survey of Research on Information Seeking, Needs, And Behavior. Academic Press, New York (2002)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Choo, C.W.: Information Management for the Intelligent Organization, the Art of Scanning the Environment. Information Today, Inc., Medford (2002)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Prabha, C., Connaway, L.S.: What is Enough? Satisfying Information Needs. Journal of Documentation 63, 74–89 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Srinivas, H.: Information for Decision-Making (2009), http://www.gdrc.org/decision/info-decision.html
  37. 37.
    Anonymous: Knowledge Workers: Shifting Research Information Sources. T + D 59, 15 (2005)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    O’Dell, C., Grayson, C.J.: If Only we Knew What we Know: Identification And Transfer Of Internal Best Practices. California Management Review 40, 154–174 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Nutt, P.C.: Surprising But True: Half The Decisions In Organizations Fail. Academy of Management Executive 13, 75–90 (1999)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Daft, R.L.: Essentials of Organizational Theory and Design. South-Western College Publication, Cincinnati (2001)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Huber, G.P.: Organizational Learning: The Contributing Processes and the Literature. Organization Science. A Journal of the Institute of Management Science 2, 88–115 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Souchon, A.L., Cadogan, J.W., Procter, D.B., Dewsnap, B.: Marketing Information Use and Organizational Performance: The Mediating Role of Responsiveness. Journal of Strategic Marketing 12, 231–242 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Daft, R.L., Sormunen, J., Parks, D.: Chief Executive Scanning, Environmental Characteristics, and Company Performance. Strategic Management Journal 9, 123–139 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Jain, S.C.: Environmental Scanning in U.S. Corporations. Long Range Planning 17, 117–128 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Olsen, M.D., Murthy, B., Teare, R.: CEO Perspectives on Scanning the Global Hotel Business Environment. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management 6, 3–9 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Edward, J.E., Thomas, M.D., Rosenfeld, P., Booth-Kewley, S.: How to Conduct Organizational Surveys: A Step-By-Step Guide. Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks (1997)Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Fowler, F.J.: Survey Research Methods. Thousand Oak, California (2002)Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Babbie, E.R.: Survey Research Methods. Wadsworth Publishing, Belmont (1990)Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Majid, S., Kowtha, R.: Utilizing Environmental Knowledge for Competitive Advantage. In: International Conference on Information Resources Management (2008)Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Zhang, X., Majid, S.: Environmental Scanning Initiatives of SMEs in Singapore. Libri: International Journal of Libraries and Information Services 59, 114–123 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
  52. 52.

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xue Zhang
    • 1
  • Shaheen Majid
    • 1
  • Schubert Foo
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Information StudiesSingapore

Personalised recommendations