Advertisement

Copyright Issues Related to the Digitization of Cultural Heritage in Croatia

  • Aleksandra Horvat
  • Daniela Zivkovic
Conference paper
Part of the Communications in Computer and Information Science book series (CCIS, volume 96)

Abstract

A proliferation of EU programmes and action plans on digitization proves that there is a political will to digitize and make available to the public the rich cultural heritage of Europe. The article tracks the development of these ideas and actions and focuses on one of the obstacles to be overcome-the lack of consistency in approaches to intellectual property rights. The aim of the investigation described in the paper has been to find out how copyright issues related to the digitization performed by public institutions such as libraries and archives have been dealt with in Croatia. Information collected from the national electronic portal Croatian Cultural Heritage was further enriched by interviews held with the persons responsible for digitization projects in four major public institutions in the country. A lack of suitable registries or databases with data on national authors has been noted. Institutions show different approaches to digital copies they produce; some consider themselves to be the publishers and rights holders of new digital editions of works, while the others take digitization primarily as a means of protection of originals. As a rule institutions have a policy of copyright management, even if a rudimentary one. All institutions provide copyright information, sometimes with a copyright disclaimer. They use watermarking as a technical protection measure. Digitized materials are provided at no cost on the Internet for private use and research. Use of materials for commercial purposes has to be paid for and the institutions look upon it as a source of revenue to fund further digitization activities. The institutions’ policy toward derivative works, i.e. offering the opportunity to users to create their own content, is yet to be determined.

Keywords

Digitization copyright orphan works user-created content cultural heritage Croatia EU digitization policy 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Council and European Commission for the Feira Council: e-Europe2002 Action Plan (2000), http://ec.europa.eu/information_society/eeurope/2002/action_plan/pdf/actionplan_en.pdf
  2. 2.
    Lund principles: Lund Principles: Conclusion of Experts Meeting, Lund, Sweden (April 4, 2001), http://cordis.europa.eu/ist/digicult/lund-principles.htm
  3. 3.
  4. 4.
  5. 5.
    Dynamic action plan for the EU co-ordination of digitization of cultural and scientific content, http://www.minervaeurope.org/publications/dap/dap.pdf
  6. 6.
    Ricolfi, M., et al.: Final Report on Digital Preservation, Orphan Works, and Out-of Print Works (i2010: Digital libraries High Level Expert Group – Copyright Subgroup) (2008), http://ec.europa.eu/information_society/activities/digital_libraries/doc/hleg/reports/copyright/copyright_subgroup_final_report_26508-clean171.pdf
  7. 7.
    Cultural Heritage, Information Society Technologies, http://cordis.europa.eu/ist/digicult/eeurope.htm
  8. 8.
    Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works, http://www.wipo.int/treaties/en/ip/berne/
  9. 9.
    Copyright in the Knowledge Economy: Green Paper. Brussels: Commission of the European Communities, (COM (2008)466/3), http://ec.europa.eu/internal_market/copyright/docs/copyright-infso/greenpaper_en.pdf
  10. 10.
    Directive 2001/29/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of May 22, 2001 on the Harmonisation of Certain Aspects of Copyright and Related Rights in the Information Society, http://www.ivir.nl/legislation/eu/copyright-directive.doc
  11. 11.
    IFLA: IFLA Guidelines for Digitization Projects for Collections and Holdings in the Public Domain, Particularly those Held by Libraries and Archives (2002), http://www.ifla.org
  12. 12.
    EIFL, IFLA and LCA Statement of Principles on Copyright Exceptions and Limitations for Libraries and Archives, http://www.eifl.net/cps/sections/docs/ip_docs/statement-principles/downloadFile/attachedFile_f0/StatementofPrinciples_English.pdf?nocache=1261508729.81
  13. 13.
    WIPO SCCR: Analytical document on limitations and exceptions. WIPO Standing Committee on Copyright and Related Rights, Nineteenth session, Geneva, SCCR19/3 (December 14 - 18, 2009), http://www.wipo.int/meetings/en/doc_details.jsp?doc_id=129524
  14. 14.
    Bide, M., Oppenheim, C., Ramsden, A.: Some Proposals Regarding Copyright Clearance and Digitisation in Higher Education. Journal of Information Science 23, 393–405 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    In from the Cold: An Assessment of the Scope of ’Orphan Works’ and its Impact on the Delivery of Services to the Public, http://www.jisc.ac.uk/contentalliance/
  16. 16.
    Commission of the European Communities: Commission Recommendation of August 24, 2006 on the Digitisation and Online Accessibility of Cultural Material and Digital Preservation, Brussels, http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2006:236:0028:0030:EN:PDF
  17. 17.
  18. 18.
    Communication from the Commission: Communication on Copyright in the Knowledge Economy. Commission of the European Communities, (COM(2009)532final), Brussels (2009), http://ec.europa.eu/internal_market/copyright/docs/copyright-infso/20091019_532_en.pdf
  19. 19.
    Ministry of Culture: National Programme of Digitisation of Archival, Library and Museum Holdings: Summary. Zagreb (2007), http://www.kultura.hr/eng/Join-in/Download-documents/The-National-Programme-of-Digitisation-of-Archival-Library-and-Museum-Holdings
  20. 20.
    LIBER Response to the EC Creative Content Online Consultation, http://www.libereurope.eu/files/LIBER-Response-Creative-Content-Online-Consultation.pdf
  21. 21.
    Crnkovic, K., Juricic, V., Polak Bobic, K.: Digitalna Zbirka Knjiznice Hrvatske Akademije Znanosti i Umjetnost. Croatian Cultural Heritage, http://www.kultura.hr
  22. 22.
    Horvat, A., Zivkovic, D.: Knjiznice I Autorsko Pravo (Libraries and Copyright). Hrvatska sveucilisna naklada, Zagreb (2009)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Helberger, N., et al.: Legal Aspects of UCC (2010), http://www.ivir.nl/index.html
  24. 24.
    Halbert, D.: Mass Culture and the Culture of the Masses: A Manifesto for User-Generated Rights. Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law 11, 921–961 (2009)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Gervais, D.: The Tangled Web of UGC: Making Copyright Sense of User-Generated Content. Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law 11, 841–870 (2009)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Aleksandra Horvat
    • 1
  • Daniela Zivkovic
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Humanities and Social SciencesUniversity of ZagrebZagrebCroatia

Personalised recommendations