Multi-scale Tribological Characterization

Part of the Biological and Medical Physics, Biomedical Engineering book series (BIOMEDICAL)


Tribology is very important to hair care and product development.While the current state of the art is to use an AFM to measure the nanoscale tribological properties of hair in contact with an AFM tip, macroscale tribological measurements provide an excellent simulation of skin–hair and hair–hair contacts (Bhushan et al., 2005). The friction and wear of hair were measured using a flat-on-flat tribometer. Friction and wear studies on various hair are presented, including effect of load, velocity, and skin size. In addition, the effect of humidity and temperature on hair tribological properties is discussed.


Friction Force Adhesive Force Hair Sample Applied Normal Load Hair Strand 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bhushan B, Wei G, Haddad P (2005) Friction and wear studies of human hair and skin. Wear 259:1012–1021CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bhushan B (1999a) Principles and applications of tribology. Wiley, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  3. Bhushan B (2002) Introduction to tribology. Wiley, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  4. Robbins C (1994) Chemical and physical behavior of human hair, 3rd edn. Springer, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  5. Bhushan B (1984) Influence of test parameters in the measurement of the coefficient of friction of magnetic tapes. Wear 93:81–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Scott GV, Robbins CR (1980) Effects of surfactant solutions on hair fiber friction. J Soc Cosmet Chem 31:179–200Google Scholar
  7. LaTorre C, Bhushan B (2005a) Nanotribological characterization of human hair and skin using atomic force microscopy. Ultramicroscopy 105:155–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. LaTorre C, Bhushan B (2005b) Nanotribological effects of hair care products and environment on human hair using atomic force microscopy. J Vac Sci Technol A 23:1034–1045CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  9. LaTorre C, Bhushan B (2006) Investigation of scale effects and directionality dependence on adhesion and friction of human hair using AFM and macroscale friction test apparatus. Ultramicroscopy 106:720–734CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Lodge RA, Bhushan B (2006a) Surface characterization of human hair using tapping mode atomic force microscopy and measurement of conditioner thickness distribution. J Vac Sci Technol A 24:1258–1269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chen N, Bhushan B (2005) Morphological, nanomechanical and cellular structural characterization of human hair and conditioner distribution using torsional resonance mode in an AFM. J Microscopy 220:96–112CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  12. Chen N, Bhushan B (2006) Atomic force microscopy studies of conditioner thickness distribution and binding interactions on the hair surface. J Microscopy 221:203–215CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  13. Bhushan B (2008b) Nanotribology and nanomechanics – an introduction, 2nd edn. Springer, HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  14. Bhushan B, Dandavate C (2000) Thin-film friction and adhesion studies using atomic force microscopy. J Appl Phys 87:1201–1210CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  15. Liu H, Bhushan B (2003) Nanotribological characterization of molecularly thick lubricant films for applications to MEMS/NEMS by AFM. Ultramicroscopy 97:321–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bolduc C, Shapiro J (2001) Hair care products: waving, straightening, conditioning, and coloring. Clin Dermatol 19:431–436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gray J (2001) Hair care and hair care products. Clin Dermatol 19:227–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bhushan B, Liu H, Hsu SM (2004) Adhesion and friction studies of silicon and hydrophobic and low friction films and investigation of scale effects. ASME J Tribol 126:583–590CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Nanoprobe Laboratory for Bio- and Nanotechnology and Biomimetics (NLB2)Ohio State UniversityColumbusUSA

Personalised recommendations