Enriching Spatial Knowledge through a Multiattribute Locational System

  • Stephen C. Hirtle
  • Samvith Srinivas
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 6222)


Research has demonstrated that current navigation systems, while useful as a wayfinding tool, do not support the acquisition of spatial knowledge of the environment. In contrast to portable navigation devices, participants in this study learned about the location of lesser known campus libraries through a desktop system, which presented yoked images, maps and verbal directions to the participants. Information included not only the location of the building that housed the library, but also internal directions within the building to the library itself. The results showed that confidence to find the library by memory was notably improved by use of the system. Finally, the role of images was examined by selectively removing images from a random subset of the libraries, which resulted in marked decrease in confidence.


Spatial Knowledge Verbal Direction Instructional Unit Route Description Navigation Group 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Parush, A., Ahuvia, S., Erev, I.: Degradation in Spatial Knowledge Acquisition When Using Automatic Navigation Systems. In: Winter, S., Duckham, M., Kulik, L., Kuipers, B. (eds.) COSIT 2007. LNCS, vol. 4736, pp. 238–254. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Tversky, B.: Cognitive Maps, Cognitive Collages, and Spatial Mental Models. In: Campari, I., Frank, A.U. (eds.) COSIT 1993. LNCS, vol. 716. Springer, Heidelberg (1993)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ichikawa, K., Nakatani, Y.: Driver Support System: Spatial Cognitive Ability and Its Application to Human Navigation. In: Smith, M.J., Salvendy, G. (eds.) HCII 2007. LNCS, vol. 4558, pp. 1013–1019. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chen, B., Neubert, B., Ofek, E., Deussen, O., Cohen, M.F.: Integrated videos and maps for driving directions. In: 22nd Annual ACM Symposium on User interface Software and Technology, Victoria, BC, Canada, pp. 223–232 (2009)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Meijer, F., Geudeke, B.L., van den Broek, E.L.: Navigating through Virtual Environments: Visual Realism Improves Spatial Cognition. CyberPsychology & Behavior 12, 517–521 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Oomes, A.H., Bojic, M., Bazen, G.: Supporting Cognitive Collage Creation for Pedestrian Navigation. In: Harris, D. (ed.) Engineering Psychology and Cognitive Ergonomics, HCII 2009. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 5639, pp. 111–119. Springer, Heidelberg (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kaminoyama, J., Matsuo, T., Hattori, F., Susami, K., Kuwahara, N., Abe, S.: Walk Navigation System Using Photographs for People with Dementia. In: Smith, M.J., Salvendy, G. (eds.) HCII 2007. LNCS, vol. 4558, pp. 1039–1049. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Klippel, A., Hirtle, S.C., Davies, C.: You-are-here maps: Creating Spatial Awareness through Map-Like Representations. Spatial Cognition and Computation 10, 82–93 (2010)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ellard, C.: You Are Here: Why We Can Find Our Way to the Moon, But Get Lost in the Mall. Doubleday, New York (2009)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ishikawa, T., Murasawa, K., Okabe, A.: Wayfinding and Art Viewing by Users of a Mobile System and a Guidebook. Journal of Location Based Services 3, 277–293 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Montello, D.R.: Cognitive Research in GIScience: Recent Achievements and Future Prospects. Geography Compass 3, 1824–1840 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hirtle, S.C., Sorrows, M.E.: Designing a Multimodal Navigational Tool for Locating Buildings on a College Campus. Journal of Environmental Psychology 18, 265–276 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Masui, T., Minakuchi, M., Borden, G.R., Kashiwagi, K.: Multiple-View Approach for Smooth Information Retrieval. In: ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology, Pittsburgh, PA (1995)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Raubal, M., Egenhofer, M.: Comparing the Complexity of Wayfinding Tasks in Built Environments. Environment and Planning B 25, 895–913 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mayer, R.E.: Applying the Science of Learning Evidence-Based Principles for the Design of Multimedia Instruction. American Psychologist 83, 760–769 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Golledge, R.G.: Wayfinding Behavior: Cognitive Mapping and Other Spatial Processes. Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore (1999)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Taylor, H.A., Bruny, T.T., Taylor, S.T.: Spatial Mental Representation: Implications for Navigation System Design. Reviews of Human Factors and Ergonomics 4, 1–40 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Dale, R., Geldof, S., Prost, J.-P.: Generating More Natural Route Descriptions. In: 2002 Australasian Natural Language Processing Workshop, Canberra, Australia (2002)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Winter, S., Raubal, M., Nothegger, C.: Focalizing Measures of Salience for Route Directions. In: Meng, L., Zipf, A., Reichenbacher, T. (eds.) Map-Based Mobile Services - Theories, Methods and Design Implementations, pp. 127–142. Springer Geosciences, Berlin (2004)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Tufte, E.R.: Visual Explanation. Graphics Press, Cheshire (1997)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bell, M., Reeves, S., Brown, B., Sherwood, S., MacMillan, D., Ferguson, J., Chalmers, M.: Eyespy: Supporting Navigation Through Play. ACM SIGCHI, 123–132 (2009)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Borgmann, A.: Holding on to Reality: The Nature of Information at the Turn of the Millennium. University of Chicago Press, Chicago (1999)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Portugali, J.: The Construction of Cognitive Maps. Kluwer, Dordrecht (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephen C. Hirtle
    • 1
  • Samvith Srinivas
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Information SciencesUniversity of PittsburghPittsburghUSA

Personalised recommendations