Organizations pp 117-166 | Cite as

The Social “arche,” Organizations as Social Systems: Luhmann

  • Jan AchterberghEmail author
  • Dirk Vriens


In the previous chapters, we explored the first organizational “arche,” i.e., we discussed organizations as conducting risky experiments with meaningful survival. We based this discussion on insights taken from first- and second-order cybernetics.


Organizational Member Related Element Communication Pathway Prior Decision Autopoietic System 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Greshoff, R. (1999). Die theoretischen Konzeptionen des Sozialen von Max Weber und Niklas Luhmann im Vergleich. Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Kieserling, A. (1999). Kommunikation unter Anwesenden. Studien über Interaktionssysteme. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp.Google Scholar
  3. Luhmann, N. (1984). Soziale systeme: Grundriβ einer allgemeinen Theorie. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp.Google Scholar
  4. Luhmann, N. (1988a). Die Wirtschaft der Gesellschaft. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp.Google Scholar
  5. Luhmann, N. (1988b). Organisation. In W. Küpper & G. Ortmann (Eds.), Mikropolitik: Rationalität, Macht und Spiele in Organisationen. Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag.Google Scholar
  6. Luhmann, N. (1993). Soziologische Aufklärung 3. Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag.Google Scholar
  7. Luhmann, N. (1995). Social systems. J. Bednarz, Jr. & D. Baecker (Trans.). Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University PressGoogle Scholar
  8. Luhmann, N. (1998). Die Gesellschaft der Gesellschaft, Bd. 1. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp.Google Scholar
  9. Luhmann, N. (2000). Organisation und Entscheidung. Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Maturana, H., & Varela, F. (1980). Autopoiesis and cognition. Dordrecht: Reidel Publishing Company.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Seidl, D. (2005). The basic concepts of Luhmann’s theory of social systems. In D. Seidl & K. H. Becker (Eds.), Niklas Luhmann and organization studies. Copenhagen: Liber & Copenhagen Business School Press.Google Scholar
  12. von Foerster, H. (1993). KybernEthik. Berlin: Merve Verlag.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Berlin Heidelberg 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Fac. Management SciencesRadboud University NijmegenNijmegenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations