Time integration methods of the spectral model

  • Masaki Satoh
Part of the Springer Praxis Books book series (PRAXIS)


The time integration method of spectral general circulation models is described in this chapter. We start with a general concept of time integration schemes in Section 23.1. In particular, we concentrate mainly on the leapfrog scheme for temporal integration and its stability analysis.


Gravity Wave General Circulation Model Lamb Wave Implicit Scheme Spectral Model 
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References and suggested reading

  1. Asselin, R., 1972: Frequency filter for time integrations. Mon.Wea.Rev., 100, 487–490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Durran, D.R., 1998: Numerical Methods for Wave Equations in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics. Springer-Verlag, New York, 465 pp.Google Scholar
  3. Hoskins, B. J. and Simmons, A. J., 1975: A multi-layer spectral model and the semi-implicit method. Q. J.Roy. Meteorol. Soc., 101, 637–655.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Kanamitsu, M., Tada, K., Kudo, T., Sato, N., and Isa, S., 1983: Description of the JMA operational spectral model. J. Meteorol. Soc. Japan, 61, 812–828.Google Scholar
  5. Mesinger, F. and Arakawa, A., 1976: Numerical Methods Used in Atmospheric Models, GARP No. 170. WMO/ICSU Joint Organizing Committee, Geneva.Google Scholar
  6. Simmons, A. J., Hoskins, B. J., and Burridge, D., 1978: Stability of the semiimplicit method of time integration. Mon.Wea.Rev., 106, 405–412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Masaki Satoh
    • 1
  1. 1.Atmosphere and Ocean Research InstituteThe University of TokyoKashiwaJapan

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